Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Preventive Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 1345017, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1345017
Research Article

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8–13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

1Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35048, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
2Department of Recreation Management and Exercise Science, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi 00100, Kenya

Received 18 January 2016; Revised 13 May 2016; Accepted 19 May 2016

Academic Editor: Masaru Shimada

Copyright © 2016 Ismail N. Pangani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. CDC, Healthy Youth; Childhood Obesity, 2010, http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity.
  2. C. L. Ogden, M. D. Carroll, L. R. Curtin, M. M. Lamb, and K. M. Flegal, “Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007-2008,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 3, pp. 242–249, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. T. Katzmarzyk and I. Janssen, “The economic costs associated with physical inactivity and obesity in Canada: an update,” Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 90–115, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. WHO, “Obesity and Overweight,” 2007, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/.
  5. S. Kumar and M. S. Anuroopa, “Prevalence of obesity and its influencing factors among affluent school children of Davangere city,” Indian Journal of Community Medicine, vol. 32, pp. 1–3, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  6. A. M. Al-Sendi, P. Shetty, and A. O. Musaiger, “Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Bahraini adolescents: a comparison between three different sets of criteria,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 471–474, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Kantachuvessiri, “Obesity in Thailand,” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 554–562, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Bagully, The impact of childhood obesity on academic performance [M.S. thesis], Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA, 2006, https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/handle/10822/556022.
  9. M. S. Tremblay, A. G. LeBlanc, M. E. Kho et al., “Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 8, article 98, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. M. Ojiambo, C. Easton, J. A. Casajús, K. Konstabel, J. J. Reilly, and Y. Pitsiladis, “Effect of urbanization on objectively measured physical activity levels, sedentary time, and indices of adiposity in Kenyan adolescents,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 115–123, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. O. Onywera, M. Heroux, E. J. Jauregui Ulloa et al., “Adiposity and physical activity among children in countries at different stages of the physical activity transition: Canada, Mexico and Kenya,” African Journal for Physical and Health Education, Recreation, Sports and Dance, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 132–142, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. J. Reilly and J. Kelly, “Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 891–898, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. C. Mosha and S. Fungo, “Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 6-12 years in Dodoma and Kinondoni municipalities, Tanzania,” Tanzania Journal of Health Research, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 6–16, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. Cogill, Anthropometric Indicators Measurement Guide, 2003.
  15. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) Project, FHI 360, Year 2 Annual Report October 1, 2012-September 30, 2013.
  16. T. Lobstein, L. Baur, and R. Uauy, “Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 4–85, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. S. K. Muthuri, C. E. Francis, L.-J. M. Wachira et al., “Evidence of an overweight/obesity transition among school-aged children and youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 3, Article ID e92846, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. L. Wachira, Physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, dietary habits and adiposity of 9 to 11 year old school children in Nairobi county [Ph.D. thesis of Applied Human Sciences], Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya, 2014.
  19. H. Ene-Obong, V. Ibeanu, N. Onuoha, and A. Ejekwu, “Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and thinness among urban school-aged children and adolescents in southern Nigeria,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 242–250, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. De Onis and M. Blossner, “Prevalence and trends of overweight among preschool children in developing countries,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 1032–1039, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Steyn and A. Damasceno, “Lifestyle and related risk factors for chronic diseases,” in Disease and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, D. T. Jamison, R. G. Feachem, M. W. Makgoba et al., Eds., World Bank, Washington, DC, USA, 2nd edition, 2015, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2290/. View at Google Scholar
  22. J. Kamau, M. Wanderi, W. Njororai, and E. Wamukoya, “Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children in Nairobi province, Kenya,” African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, vol. 17, no. 2, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. K. B. Adamo, A. W. Sheel, V. Onywera, J. Waudo, M. Boit, and M. S. Tremblay, “Child obesity and fitness levels among Kenyan and Canadian children from urban and rural environments: a KIDS-CAN Research Alliance Study,” The International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. e225–e232, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. E. G. Armstrong, M. I. Lambert, K. A. Sharwood, and E. V. Lambert, “Obesity and overweight in South African primary school children—The Health of the Nation Study,” Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 52–63, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. W. Kimani-Murage, K. Kahn, J. M. Pettifor et al., “The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children,” BMC Public Health, vol. 10, article 158, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. IASO, “Childhood overweight, obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries,” European Journal of Clinical and Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 200–204, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. Fazili, A. A. Mir, I. M. Pandit, I. A. Bhat, J. Rohul, and H. Shamila, “Nutritional status of school age children (5–14 years) in a rural health block of North India (Kashmir) using WHO Z-score system,” Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences, vol. 11, no. 2, article 2, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. A. O'Dea, “Gender, ethnicity, culture and social class influences on childhood obesity among Australian schoolchildren: implications for treatment, prevention and community education,” Health and Social Care in the Community, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 282–290, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. O. Hajian-Tilaki, P. Sajjadi, and A. Razavi, “Prevalence of overweight and obesity and associated risk factors in urban primary-school children in Babol, Islamic Republic of Iran,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 109–114, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. A. Rodriguez, M. A. Winkleby, D. Ahn, J. Sundquist, and H. C. Kraemer, “Prevelence of overweight and obesity in elementary schools in Denmark,” Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 489–491, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  31. C. Ming-Kai, “Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Hong Kong school children,” Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, vol. 4, no. 2, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  32. V. Alejandro, C. Gonzßlez, B. PΘrez, C. González, and B. Pérez, Obesity Prevention through Physical Activity in School-Age Children and Adolescents, University of Camilo Jose Cela, Madrid, Spain, 2011.
  33. K. M. Flegal, C. L. Ogden, R. Wei, R. L. Kuczmarski, and C. L. Johnson, “Prevalence of overweight in US children: comparison of US growth charts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with other reference values for body mass index,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 1086–1093, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. M. Okoth, Overweight and obesity in relation to dietary intake and physical activity among adolescents aged 15–19 years attending day secondary schools in Kisumu district [M.S. thesis], Applied Human Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya, 2013.