Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Preventive Medicine
Volume 2017, Article ID 9708413, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9708413
Review Article

Is Dementia Screening of Apparently Healthy Individuals Justified?

1Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
2Bruyère Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada
3Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
4Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada
5Primary Health Services Division, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada
6Cambridge Institute of Public Health, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Larry W. Chambers; ac.retsamcm@srebmahc

Received 24 January 2017; Revised 1 June 2017; Accepted 14 June 2017; Published 8 August 2017

Academic Editor: William C. Cho

Copyright © 2017 Larry W. Chambers et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. G. Blazer, K. Yaffe, and C. T. Liverman, Eds., IOM (Institute of Medicine), Cognitive Aging: Progress in Understanding and Opportunities for Action, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. Alzheimer’s Association, “2016 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures,” Alzheimer's and Dementia, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 459–509, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. Alzheimer’s Disease International, Dementia Statistics, 2017, http://www.alz.co.uk/research/statistics.
  4. Alzheimer’s Disease International, World Alzheimer Report 2014: Dementia and Risk Reduction, 2017, http://www.alz.co.uk/research/world-report-2014.
  5. J. C. Morris, J. Weng, and C. Xiong, “Subjective Cognitive Decline Versus Informant Report,” in Proceedings of the Alzheimer Association International Conference 2014 Screening for Alzheimer’s Disease in Cognitively Normal Older Adults, vol. 10, https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/elsevier/screening-for-alzheimer-s-disease-inhttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/elsevier/screening-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults-r1IkxHjBA0cognitively-normal-older-adults-r1IkxHjBA0.
  6. B. Dubois, S. Epelbaum, A. Michon et al., “Screening for AD: Why and How?” in Proceedings of the Alzheimer Association International Conference 2014, 2016, http://www.alzheimersanddementia.com/article/S1552http://www.alzheimersanddementia.com/article/S1552-5260(14)00370-7/fulltext%20Accessed%20February%2020165260(14)00370-7/fulltext. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. P. J. Bayley, J. Y. Kong, M. Mendiondo et al., “Findings from the national memory screening day program,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 309–314, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. E. Morley, J. C. Morris, M. Berg-Weger et al., “Brain Health: The Importance of Recognizing Cognitive Impairment: An IAGG Consensus Conference,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 731–739, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. Health promotion: A Discussion Document on the Concept and Principles : Summary Report of the Working Group on Concept and Principles of Health Promotion, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1984.
  10. JS. Lin et al., “Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults: an evidence update for the united states preventive services task force. evidence synthesis,” AHRQ Publication No. 14-05198-EF-1, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  11. Gerontology Society of America Workgroup on Cognitive Impairment Detection and Earlier Diagnosis. Report and Recommendations. The Gerontology Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, 2015, https://www.geron.org/images/gsa/documents/gsaciworkgroup2015report.pdf.
  12. Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, K. Pottie, R. Rahal et al., “Recommendations on screening for cognitive impairment in older adults,” CMAJ, vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. “United Kingdom National Screening Committee, The UK NSC recommendation on Screening for Dementia, London, Public Health England, 2015,” https://legacyscreening.phe.org.uk/dementia.
  14. J. M. G. Wilson and G. Jungner, Principles and practice of screening for disease, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1968, Available from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/37650/17/WHO_PHP_34.pdf.
  15. L. Velayudhan, S.-H. Ryu, M. Raczek et al., “Review of brief cognitive tests for patients with suspected dementia,” International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1247–1262, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, and P. R. McHugh, ““Mini-mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 12, no. 3, Article ID 1202204, pp. 189–198, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. Frequently Asked Questions, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Montréal, Canada, 2015, http://www.mocatest.org/faq/.
  18. D. I. Kaufer, C. S. Williams, A. J. Braaten, K. Gill, S. Zimmerman, and P. D. Sloane, “Cognitive Screening for Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Assisted Living: Comparison of 3 Tests,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 586–593, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Flicker, D. Logiudice, J. B. Carlin, and D. Ames, “The predictive value of dementia screening instruments in clinical populations,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 203–209, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. All Party Parliamentary Group on Dementia, Dementia Rarely Travels Alone: Living with Dementia and Other Conditions, /APPG_on_Dementia_2016_Report(2).pdf, London, UK, 2016.
  21. Alzheimer Society of Canada, “Prevalence and Monetary Costs of Dementia in Canada,” Alzheimer Society of Canada, Toronto, Canada, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Wimo and B. Winblad, “Brain Health: A Primary Health Care Viewpoint,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 720-721, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Iliffe and J. Wilcock, “The UK experience of promoting dementia recognition and management in primary care,” Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, vol. 50, pp. 63–67, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. S. Bell, K. Harkness, J. M. Dickson, and D. Blackburn, “A diagnosis for £55: What is the cost of government initiatives in dementia case finding,” Age and Ageing, vol. 44, no. 2, Article ID afu205, pp. 344-345, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Gracia, “Institute of Medicine (IOM). The Learning Healthcare System: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2007,” EIDON nº 39. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. M. G. M. Olde Rikkert, J. A. H. R. Claassen, and R. T. C. M. Koopmans, “Do Not Harm Older Persons in Primary Care by Case Finding of Cognitive Decline, Instead Assess Cognition Only Following Loss of Well-being,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 456-457, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Jopp, C. Rott, and F. Oswald, “Valuation of life in old and very old age: The role of sociodemographic, social, and health resources for positive adaptation,” Gerontologist, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 646–658, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Steptoe, A. Deaton, and A. A. Stone, “Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing,” The Lancet, vol. 385, no. 9968, pp. 640–648, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. Jopp and C. Rott, “Adaptation in very old age: Exploring the role of resources, beliefs, and attitudes for centenarians' happiness,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 266–280, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Agüero-Torres, M. Kivipelto, and E. Von Strauss, “Rethinking the dementia diagnoses in a population-based study: What is Alzheimer's disease and what is vascular dementia? A study from the Kungsholmen project,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 244–249, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. B. Toledo, S. E. Arnold, K. Raible et al., “Contribution of cerebrovascular disease in autopsy confirmed neurodegenerative disease cases in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre,” Brain, vol. 136, no. 9, pp. 2697–2706, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. M. Savva, S. B. Wharton, P. G. Ince et al., “Age, Neuropathology, and Dementia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, pp. 2302–2309, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. Neuropathology Group of the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS), “Pathological correlates of late-onset dementia in a multicentre, community-based population in England and Wales,” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9251, pp. 169–175, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. D. S. Knopman, J. E. Parisi, A. Salviati et al., “Neuropathology of Cognitively Normal Elderly,” Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, vol. 62, pp. 1087–1095, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  35. J. A. Sonnen, E. B. Larson, P. K. Crane et al., “Pathological correlates of dementia in a longitudinal, population-based sample of aging,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 406–413, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Hakim, Save Your Mind: Seven Rules to Avoid Dementia, Barlow, Toronto, Canada, 2017.
  37. D. Fitzpatrick-Lewis, R. Warren, M. U. Ali, D. Sherifali, and P. Raina, “Treatment for mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta—analysis,” CMAJ Open, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. E419–E427, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. A. J. Mitchell and M. Shiri-Feshki, “Rate of progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia—meta-analysis of 41 robust inception cohort studies,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 252–265, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. T. Tschanz, K. A. Welsh-Bohmer, C. G. Lyketsos et al., “Conversion to dementia from mild cognitive disorder: The Cache County Study,” Neurology, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 229–234, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Alzheimer Society UK, Right to Know campaign—diagnosis and support, 2015, http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/.
  41. A. J. Mitchell and S. Malladi, “Screening and case finding tools for the detection of dementia. Part I: Evidence-based meta-analysis of multidomain tests,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 759–782, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. G. Welsh and S. Schwartz LM Woloshin, Overdiagnosed: Making People Sick in the Pursuit of Health, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, USA, 2011.
  43. S. Brownlee, Overtreated: Why Too Much Medicine is Making Us Sick, Bloomsbury, New York, NY, USA, 2008.
  44. R. Moynihan, J. Doust, and D. Henry, “Preventing overdiagnosis: how to stop harming the healthy,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 344, no. 7859, Article ID e3502, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. “Harding Centre for Health Literacy, General Health Check. Max Planck Institute for Human Development,” Berlin, Germany, 2016, https://www.harding-center.mpg.de/en/health-information/fact-boxes/general-health-check.
  46. B. Winblad, P. Amouyel, S. Andrieu, and C. Ballard, “Defeating Alzheimers disease and other dementias: a priority for European science and society,” Lancet Neurology, vol. 15, pp. 455–532, 2016, Accessed March 2016, http://www.thelancet.com./neurology. View at Google Scholar
  47. L. Lemieux-Charles, L. W. Chambers, R. Cockerill et al., “Evaluating the effectiveness of community-based dementia care networks: the dementia care networks' study,” The Gerontologist, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 456–464, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Alzheimer’s Disease Europe, Public beliefs on existing treatments and tests, 2011, Accessed February 2015, http://www.alzheimer-europe.org/Research/Value-of-Knowing/Public-beliefs-on-existing-treatments-and-tests.
  49. J. Cummings, T. Morstorf, and G. Lee, “Alzheimer's drug-development pipeline: 2016,” Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research and Clinical Interventions, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 222–232, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. Pimouguet, M. Le-Goff, D. Rizzuto et al., “Effect of early referral to specialist in dementia on institutionalization and functional decline: findings from a population-based study,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 49, pp. 819–828, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. S. N. Sivananthan and K. M. McGrail, “Diagnosis and Disruption: Population-Level Analysis Identifying Points of Care at Which Transitions Are Highest for People with Dementia and Factors That Contribute to Them,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 569–577, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. E. Reppas-Rindlisbacher, H. D. Fischer, K. Fung et al., “Anticholinergic Drug Burden in Persons with Dementia Taking a Cholinesterase Inhibitor: The Effect of Multiple Physicians,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 492–500, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus