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Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2014, Article ID 959830, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/959830
Review Article

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects

1Department of Pharmacology, JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy and Research, Hadapsar, Pune,Maharashtra 411028, India
2Post Graduates Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy and Research, Handewadi Road, Hadapsar, Pune, Maharashtra 411028, India
3Department of Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry, Gahlot Institute of Pharmacy Plot No. 59, Sector No. 14, Koparkhairane, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra 400709, India

Received 17 August 2013; Accepted 20 November 2013; Published 10 February 2014

Academic Editor: Robert Gogal

Copyright © 2014 Prafulla Adkar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100 g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32 mg and 102.85 mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8 mg Iron, and 121 and 325 mg phosphorus in 100 g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85 Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total protein content of the water chestnut kernel, Trapa bispinosa are reported. In this paper, the recent reports on nutritional, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects of Trapa bispinosa Roxb, as a medicinal and nutritional food, are reviewed.