Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2016, Article ID 9436106, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9436106
Research Article

Anti-Parkinson Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Ficus religiosa (L.) Leaves

Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382 481, India

Received 24 September 2015; Revised 11 December 2015; Accepted 17 December 2015

Academic Editor: Antonio Ferrer-Montiel

Copyright © 2016 Jitendra O. Bhangale and Sanjeev R. Acharya. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. F. Beal, “Mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—Bioenergetics, vol. 1366, no. 1-2, pp. 211–223, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Jenner and C. W. Olanow, “The pathogenesis of cell death in Parkinson's disease,” Neurology, vol. 66, no. 10, supplement 4, pp. S24–S36, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. E. Lang and A. M. Lozano, “Parkinson's disease: second of two parts,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 339, no. 16, pp. 1130–1143, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Scott, “Identifying poor symptom control in Parkinson's disease,” Nursing Times, vol. 102, no. 12, pp. 30–32, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. Mizuno, S. Ohta, M. Tanaka et al., “Deficiencies in complex-I subunits of the respiratory chain in Parkinson's disease,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 1450–1455, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. J. Schmidt and M. Alam, “Controversies on new animal models of Parkinson's disease pro and con: the rotenone model of Parkinson's Disease (PD),” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 70, pp. 273–276, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. J. Collier and C. E. Sortwell, “Therapeutic potential of nerve growth factors in Parkinson's disease,” Drugs and Aging, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 261–287, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. B. Sherer, R. Betarbet, and J. T. Greenamyre, “Environment, mitochondria, and Parkinson's disease,” Neuroscientist, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 192–197, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Chen, Y. Ding, B. Cagniard et al., “Unregulated cytosolic dopamine causes neurodegeneration associated with oxidative stress in mice,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 425–433, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. Zoccarato, P. Toscano, and A. Alexandre, “Dopamine-derived dopaminochrome promotes H2O2 release at mitochondria complex-1,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 16, pp. 15587–15594, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. A. Ghani, Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh with Chemical Constituents and Uses, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1998.
  12. D. Singh and R. K. Goel, “Anticonvulsant effect of Ficus religiosa: role of serotonergic pathways,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 330–334, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. V. Prasad, P. K. Subhaktha, A. Narayana, and M. M. Rao, “Medico-historical study of ‘aśvattha’ (sacred fig tree),” Bulletin of the Indian Institute of History of Medicine (Hyderabad), vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  14. S. K. Panda, N. C. Panda, and B. K. Sahue, “Phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Ficus religiosa: an overview,” Indian Veterinary Journal, vol. 60, pp. 660–664, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  15. R. S. Verma and K. S. Bhatia, “Chromatographic study of amino acids of the leaf protein concentrates of Ficus religiosa Linn and Mimusops elengi Linn,” Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice, vol. 23, pp. 231–232, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  16. O. A. Aiyegoro and A. I. Okoh, “Use of bioactive plant products in combination with standard antibiotics: implications in antimicrobial chemotherapy,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 3, no. 13, pp. 1147–1152, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. K. Warrier, Indian Medicinal Plants—A Compendium of 500 Species, vol. 3, Orient Longman, Chennai, India, 1996.
  18. J. B. Harborne, Phytochemical Methods, Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 3rd edition, 1998.
  19. V. Ravichandran, B. Suresh, M. N. Sathishkumar, K. Elango, and R. Srinivasan, “Antifertility activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb): an ethnomedicines used by tribals of Nilgiris region in Tamilnadu,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 189–191, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. J. Elliott and S. P. Close, “Neuroleptic-induced catalepsy as a model of Parkinson's disease I. Effect of dopaminergic agents,” Journal of Neural Transmission. Parkinson's Disease and Dementia Section, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 79–89, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. R. Deumens, A. Blokland, and J. Prickaerts, “Modeling Parkinson's disease in rats: an evaluation of 6-OHDA lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 175, no. 2, pp. 303–317, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Wang, L.-F. Hu, Y. Yang, J.-H. Ding, and G. Hu, “Studies of ATP-sensitive potassium channels on 6-hydroxydopamine and haloperidol rat models of Parkinson's disease: implications for treating Parkinson's disease?” Neuropharmacology, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 984–992, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. S. Reddy and S. K. Kulkarni, “Possible role of nitric oxide in the nootropic and antiamnesic effects of neurosteroids on aging- and dizocilpine-induced learning impairment,” Brain Research, vol. 799, no. 2, pp. 215–229, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. RajaSankar, T. Manivasagam, V. Sankar et al., “Withania somnifera root extract improves catecholamines and physiological abnormalities seen in a Parkinson's disease model mouse,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 369–373, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Ohkawa, N. Ohishi, and K. Yagi, “Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 351–358, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. W. F. Beyer Jr. and I. Fridovich, “Assaying for superoxide dismutase activity: some large consequences of minor changes in conditions,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 559–566, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. Aebi, “Catalase in vitro,” in Methods in Enzymology, vol. 105, pp. 121–126, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  28. S. K. Srivastava and E. Beutler, “Accurate measurement of oxidized glutathione content of human, rabbit, and rat red blood cells and tissues,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 25, pp. 70–76, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. Blandini and M.-T. Armentero, “Animal models of Parkinson's disease,” FEBS Journal, vol. 279, no. 7, pp. 1156–1166, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Cohen and R. E. Heikkila, “The generation of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical by 6-hydroxydopamine, dialuric acid, and related cytotoxic agents,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 249, no. 8, pp. 2447–2452, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. G. Graham, S. M. Tiffany, W. R. Bell Jr., and W. F. Gutknecht, “Autoxidation versus covalent binding of quinones as the mechanism of toxicity of dopamine, 6-hydroxydopamine, and related compounds toward C1300 neuroblastoma cells in vitro,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 644–653, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y. Y. Glinka and M. B. H. Youdim, “Inhibition of mitochondrial complexes I and IV by 6-hydroxydopamine,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 292, no. 3-4, pp. 329–332, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. Glinka, M. Gassen, and M. B. H. Youdim, “Mechanism of 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity,” Journal of Neural Transmission, Supplement, no. 50, pp. 55–66, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Jenner and C. W. Olanow, “Understanding cell death in Parkinson's disease,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. S72–S84, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. Halliwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge, “Oxygen radicals and the nervous system,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 8, pp. 22–26, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. S. Monk, K. V. Fagerstedt, and R. M. Crawford, “Oxygen toxicity and superoxide dismutase as an antioxidant in physiological stress,” Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 456–459, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. C. Bowler, M. Van Montagu, and D. Inzé, “Superoxide dismutase and stress tolerance,” Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 83–116, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. G. Scandalios, “Response of plant antioxidant defense genes to environmental stress,” Advances in Genetics, vol. 28, pp. 1–41, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  39. E. B. Gralla and D. J. Kosman, “Molecular genetics of superoxide dismutases in yeasts and related fungi,” Advances in Genetics, vol. 30, pp. 251–319, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Jenner, “Oxidative mechanisms in nigral cell death in Parkinson's disease,” Movement Disorders, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 24–34, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. Riederer, E. Sofic, W.-D. Rausch et al., “Transition metals, ferritin, glutathione, and ascorbic acid in Parkinsonian brains,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 515–520, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus