Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2017, Article ID 4320408, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4320408
Review Article

Neuroprotection in Glaucoma: Old and New Promising Treatments

1Sooft Italia S.p.A., Via Salvatore Quasimodo 136, Rome, Italy
2Bioos Italia S.r.l., Viale Andrea Doria 21, Catania, Italy
3Ophthalmology Clinic of the Sant’Andrea Hospital of Rome, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
4Department of Sense Organs, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
5Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrology, Anesthesiology and Geriatric Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Dario Rusciano; ti.tfoos@onaicsur.oirad

Received 21 April 2017; Revised 2 September 2017; Accepted 13 September 2017; Published 17 October 2017

Academic Editor: Antonio Ferrer-Montiel

Copyright © 2017 Dario Rusciano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. A. Quigley, “Glaucoma,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9774, pp. 1367–1377, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. The AGIS Investigators, “The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 7. The relationship between control of intraocular pressure and visual field deterioration,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 429–440, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. W. Jin and S. Y. Noh, “Long-term clinical course of normal-tension glaucoma: 20 years of experience,” Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 2017, 6 pages, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. R. N. Weinreb, T. Aung, and F. A. Medeiros, “The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 311, no. 18, pp. 1901–1911, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Nucci, R. Tartaglione, L. Rombolà, L. A. Morrone, E. Fazzi, and G. Bagetta, “Neurochemical evidence to implicate elevated glutamate in the mechanisms of high intraocular pressure (IOP)-induced retinal ganglion cell death in rat,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 935–941, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. P. Kersey and D. C. Broadway, “Corticosteroid-induced glaucoma: a review of the literature,” Eye, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 407–416, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Gupta and P. P. Chen, “Glaucoma,” Am Fam Physician, vol. 93, no. 8, pp. 668–74, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  8. A. J. Tatham, R. N. Weinreb, and F. A. Medeiros, “Strategies for improving early detection of glaucoma: the combined structure-function index,” Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 8, pp. 611–621, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Abu-Amero, A. A. Kondkar, and K. V. Chalam, “An updated review on the genetics of primary open angle glaucoma,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 28886–28911, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. Diekmann and D. Fischer, “Glaucoma and optic nerve repair,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 353, no. 2, pp. 327–337, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Seki and S. A. Lipton, “Targeting excitotoxic/free radical signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention in glaucoma,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 173, pp. 495–510, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Geraldine, B. Brijit Sneha, R. Elanchezhian et al., “Prevention of selenite-induced cataractogenesis by acetyl-l-carnitine: An experimental study,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 1340–1349, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. E. Ohia, C. A. Opere, and A. M. Leday, “Pharmacological consequences of oxidative stress in ocular tissues,” Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, vol. 579, no. 1-2, pp. 22–36, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Izzotti, A. Bagnis, and S. C. Saccà, “The role of oxidative stress in glaucoma,” Mutation Research—Reviews in Mutation Research, vol. 612, no. 2, pp. 105–114, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. N. Toda and M. Nakanishi-Toda, “Nitric oxide: ocular blood flow, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy,” Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 205–238, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. P. Richer and R. C. Rose, “Water soluble antioxidants in mammalian aqueous humor: Interaction with UV B and hydrogen peroxide,” Vision Research, vol. 38, no. 19, pp. 2881–2888, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Gherghel, H. R. Griffiths, E. J. Hilton, I. A. Cunliffe, and S. L. Hosking, “Systemic reduction in glutathione levels occurs in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 877–883, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Fan, P. Wang, L. Tang, and X. Liu, “Ocular Blood Flow and Normal Tension Glaucoma,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 308505, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. C. Gauthier and J. Liu, “Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection in Glaucoma,” Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  20. N. Tripathi, N. Saini, and S. Tiwari, “Morphological and molecular characterization of endangered medicinal plant species coleus forskohlii collected from central India,” Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 253–261, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. K. B. Seamon and J. W. Daly, “Forskolin: A unique diterpene activator of cyclic AMP-generating systems,” Journal of Cyclic Nucleotide Research, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 201–204, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. L. Sears, “Regulation of aqueous flow by the adenylate cyclase receptor complex in the ciliary epithelium,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 194–198, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. J. Busch, K. Kobayashi, P. F. Hoyng, and T. W. Mittag, “Adenylyl cyclase in human and bovine trabecular meshwork,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 3028–3034, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  24. S. P. Bartels, S. R. Lee, and A. H. Neufeld, “Forskolin stimulates cyclic AMP synthesis, lowers intraocular pressure and increases outflow facility in rabbits,” Current Eye Research, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 673–681, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Caprioli and M. Sears, “Forskolin lowers intraocular pressure in rabbits, monkeys, and man,” Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8331, pp. 958–960, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Caprioli and M. Sears, “Combined effect of forskolin and acetazolamide on intraocular pressure and aqueous flow in rabbit eyes,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 47–50, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Caprioli, M. Sears, L. Bausher, D. Gregory, and A. Mead, “Forskolin lowers intraocular pressure by reducing aqueous inflow,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 268–277, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. R. Smith, R. N. Gaster, I. H. Leopold, and L. D. Zeleznick, “Forskolin, a Potent Adenylate Cyclase Activator, Lowers Rabbit Intraocular Pressure,” JAMA Ophtalmology, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 146–148, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. P. Bartels, S. R. Lee, and A. H. Neufeld, “The effects of forskolin on cyclic AMP, intraocular pressure and aqueous humor formation in rabbits,” Current Eye Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 307–320, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Shibata, H. Mishima, and T. Kurokawa, “Ocular pigmentation and intraocular pressure response to forskolin,” Current Eye Research, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 667–674, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Matsumoto, T. Yamashita, M. Araie, S. Kametani, T. Hosokawa, and M. Takase, “The ocular penetration of topical forskolin and its effects on intraocular pressure, aqueous flow rate and cyclic AMP level in the rabbit eye,” Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 428–435, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Zeng, B. Shen, L. Wen et al., “Experimental studies of the effect of Forskolin on the lowering of intraocular pressure,” Yan Ke Xue Bao, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 173–176, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C.-W. Do, K. Peterson-Yantorno, C. H. Mitchell, and M. M. Civan, “cAMP-activated maxi-Cl- channels in native bovine pigmented ciliary epithelial cells,” American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, vol. 287, no. 4, pp. C1003–C1011, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. W. H. Morgan and D. Yu, “Surgical management of glaucoma: a review,” Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 388–399, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. X. Shen, T. Koga, B.-C. Park, N. SundarRaj, and B. Y. J. T. Yue, “Rho GTPase and cAMP/protein kinase A signaling mediates myocilin-induced alterations in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 283, no. 1, pp. 603–612, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. L. Kaufman, “Enhancing trabecular outflow by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton, increasing uveoscleral outflow with prostaglandins, and understanding the pathophysiology of presbyopia. Interrogating Mother Nature: asking why, asking how, recognizing the signs, following the trail,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 3–17, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Caprioli and M. Sears, “The adenylate cyclase receptor complex and aqueous humor formation,” Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 283–300, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Vetrugno, M. G. Uva, V. Russo et al., “Oral administration of forskolin and rutin contributes to intraocular pressure control in primary open angle glaucoma patients under maximum tolerated medical therapy,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 536–541, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. Wang, R. Wang, T. Thrimawithana et al., “The Nerve Growth Factor Signaling and Its Potential as Therapeutic Target for Glaucoma,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 759473, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Ghaffariyeh, N. Honarpisheh, M. H. Heidari, S. Puyan, and F. Abasov, “Brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a biomarker in primary open-angle glaucoma,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 80–85, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. V. Sposato, V. Parisi, L. Manni et al., “Glaucoma alters the expression of NGF and NGF receptors in visual cortex and geniculate nucleus of rats: effect of eye NGF application,” Vision Research, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 54–63, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. E. Pease, S. J. McKinnon, H. A. Quigley, L. A. Kerrigan-Baumrind, and D. J. Zack, “Obstructed axonal transport of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in experimental glaucoma,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 764–774, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Iwabe, N. A. Moreno-Mendoza, F. Trigo-Tavera, C. Crowder, and G. A. García-Sánchez, “Retrograde axonal transport obstruction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its TrkB receptor in the retina and optic nerve of American Cocker Spaniel dogs with spontaneous glaucoma,” Veterinary Ophthalmology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 12–19, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. M. Juric, D. Loncar, and M. Carman-Krzan, “Noradrenergic stimulation of BDNF synthesis in astrocytes: Mediation via α1- and β1/β2-adrenergic receptors,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 52, no. 1-2, pp. 297–306, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. T. Nakahashi, H. Fujimura, C. A. Altar et al., “Vascular endothelial cells synthesize and secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor,” FEBS Letters, vol. 470, no. 2, pp. 113–117, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Meyer-Franke, G. A. Wilkinson, A. Kruttgen et al., “Depolarization and cAMP elevation rapidly recruit TrkB to the plasma membrane of CNS neurons,” Neuron, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 681–693, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Meyer-Franke, M. R. Kaplan, F. W. Pfieger, and B. A. Barres, “Characterization of the signaling interactions that promote the survival and growth of developing retinal ganglion cells in culture,” Neuron, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 805–819, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. G. Hanson Jr., S. Shen, A. P. Wiemelt, F. Arthur McMorris, and B. A. Barres, “Cyclic AMP elevation is sufficient to promote the survival of spinal motor neurons in vitro,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 7361–7371, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. Harel, C. A. Iannotti, D. Hoh, M. Clark, J. Silver, and M. P. Steinmetz, “Oncomodulin affords limited regeneration to injured sensory axons in vitro and in vivo,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 233, no. 2, pp. 708–716, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. Kurimoto, Y. Yin, K. Omura et al., “Long-distance axon regeneration in the mature optic nerve: contributions of oncomodulin, cAMP, and pten gene deletion,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 30, no. 46, pp. 15654–15663, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Y. Yin, M. T. Henzl, B. Lorber et al., “Oncomodulin is a macrophage-derived signal for axon regeneration in retinal ganglion cells,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 843–852, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. Nishihara, S. Kizaka-Kondoh, P. A. Insel, and L. Eckmann, “Inhibition of apoptosis in normal and transformed intestinal epithelial cells by cAMP through induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-2,” Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 15, pp. 8921–8926, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. B. F. Curtin, N. Pal, R. K. Gordon, and M. P. Nambiar, “Forskolin, an inducer of cAMP, up-regulates acetylcholinesterase expression and protects against organophosphate exposure in neuro 2A cells,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 290, no. 1-2, pp. 23–32, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. O. A. R. Sulaiman and T. Gordon, “Transforming growth factor-β and forskolin attenuate the adverse effects of long-term Schwann cell denervation on peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo,” Glia, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 206–218, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. Sisto, N. Lavermicocca, D. Errico, and D. Rusciano, “Oral Administration of Forskolin and Rutin Contributes to Reduce Intraocular Pressure and Improve PERG (Pattern Electroretinogram) Amplitude in Glaucomatous Patients,” JSM Biotechnol Bioeng, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 8, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  56. M. Cesareo, A. Martucci, E. Ciuffoletti et al., “Association between alzheimer's disease and glaucoma: A study based on heidelberg retinal tomography and frequency doubling technology perimetry,” Frontiers in Neuroscience, vol. 9, article no. 479, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. L. Guo, T. E. Salt, V. Luong et al., “Targeting amyloid-β in glaucoma treatment,” Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 33, pp. 13444–13449, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. Nizari, L. Guo, B. M. Davis et al., “Non-amyloidogenic effects of α2 adrenergic agonists: Implications for brimonidine-mediated neuroprotection,” Cell Death & Disease, vol. 7, no. 12, Article ID e2514, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C. Caltagirone, L. Ferrannini, N. Marchionni, G. Nappi, G. Scapagnini, and M. Trabucchi, “The potential protective effect of tramiprosate (homotaurine) against Alzheimer's disease: a review,” Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 580–587, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Y.-S. Ji, J.-W. Park, H. Heo, J.-S. Park, and S.-W. Park, “The neuroprotective effect of carnosine (β-Alanyl-l-Histidine) on retinal ganglion cell following ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Current Eye Research, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 634–641, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. Russo, A. Adornetto, F. Cavaliere et al., “Intravitreal injection of forskolin, homotaurine, and L-carnosine affords neuroprotection to retinal ganglion cells following retinal ischemic injury,” Molecular Vision, vol. 21, pp. 718–729, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. R. Russo, F. Cavaliere, L. Berliocchi et al., “Modulation of pro-survival and death-associated pathways under retinal ischemia/reperfusion: Effects of NMDA receptor blockade,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 1347–1357, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Z. Li, L. Ma, X. Chen et al., “Glycogen synthase kinase-3: a key kinase in retinal neuron apoptosis in early diabetic retinopathy,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 127, no. 19, pp. 3464–3470, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Hetman and Z. Xia, “Signaling pathways mediating anti-apoptotic action of neurotrophins,” Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars), vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 531–545, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  65. E. Beurel and R. S. Jope, “The paradoxical pro- and anti-apoptotic actions of GSK3 in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 173–189, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. A. Nixon, “The calpains in aging and aging-related diseases,” Ageing Research Reviews, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 407–418, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. K. E. Saatman, B. Abai, A. Grosvenor, C. K. Vorwerk, D. H. Smith, and D. F. Meaney, “Traumatic axonal injury results in biphasic calpain activation and retrograde transport impairment in mice,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 34–42, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. G. Mutolo, G. Albanese, D. Rusciano, and N. Pescosolido, “Oral Administration of Forskolin, Homotaurine, Carnosine, and Folic Acid in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Changes in Intraocular Pressure, Pattern Electroretinogram Amplitude, and Foveal Sensitivity,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 178–183, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. Srivastava, H. Ahmed, R. Dixit, Dharamveer, and S. Saraf, “Crocus sativus L.: A comprehensive review,” Pharmacognosy Reviews, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 200–208, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. N. Assimopoulou, Z. Sinakos, and V. P. Papageorgiou, “Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. extract and its bioactive constituents,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 997–1000, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. T. Ochiai, H. Shimeno, K.-I. Mishima et al., “Protective effects of carotenoids from saffron on neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, vol. 1770, no. 4, pp. 578–584, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. H. Hosseinzadeh, H. R. Sadeghnia, T. Ziaee, and A. Danaee, “Protective effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and crocin, its active constituent, on renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage in rats,” Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 387–393, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. H. J. Bonyadi, S. Yazdani, and S. Saadat, “The ocular hypotensive effect of saffron extract in primary open angle glaucoma: A pilot study,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, article no. 399, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. R. Maccarone, S. Di Marco, and S. Bisti, “Saffron supplement maintains morphology and function after exposure to damaging light in mammalian retina,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 1254–1261, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. Yamauchi, K. Tsuruma, S. Imai et al., “Crocetin prevents retinal degeneration induced by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses via inhibition of caspase activity,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 650, no. 1, pp. 110–119, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. X. Bie, Y. Chen, X. Zheng, and H. Dai, “The role of crocetin in protection following cerebral contusion and in the enhancement of angiogenesis in rats,” Fitoterapia, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 997–1002, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. P. Cherecheanu, G. Garhofer, D. Schmidl, R. Werkmeister, and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 36–42, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. Ates, O. Uretmen, R. Killi, C. Akkin, and K. Andac, “Relationship between ocular perfusion pressure and retrobulbar blood flow in patients with glaucoma with progressive damage,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 132, no. 4, pp. 598-599, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. B. Xuan, Y.-H. Zhou, N. Li, Z.-D. Min, and G. C. Y. Chiou, “Effects of crocin analogs on ocular blood flow and retinal function,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 143–152, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. Y. Qi, L. Chen, L. Zhang, W.-B. Liu, X.-Y. Chen, and X.-G. Yang, “Crocin prevents retinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 107, pp. 44–51, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. M. Carlsson, B. C. Chauhan, A. A. Lee, and R. P. Leblanc, “The effect of brimonidine tartrate on retinal blood flow in patients with ocular hypertension,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 297–301, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. Y. Lachkar, C. Migdal, and S. Dhanjil, “Effect of brimonidine tartrate on ocular hemodynamic measurements,” JAMA Ophtalmology, vol. 116, no. 12, pp. 1591–1594, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. S. Sharma, S. Trikha, S. A. Perera, and T. Aung, “Clinical effectiveness of brinzolamide 1%–brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 9, pp. 2201–2207, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. Yukita, K. Omodaka, S. Machida et al., “Brimonidine Enhances the Electrophysiological Response of Retinal Ganglion Cells through the Trk-MAPK/ERK and PI3K Pathways in Axotomized Eyes,” Current Eye Research, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 125–133, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. E. Yoles, L. A. Wheeler, and M. Schwartz, “Alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonists are neuroprotective in a rat model of optic nerve degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 65–73, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  86. J. E. Donello, E. U. Padillo, M. L. Webster, L. A. Wheeler, and D. W. Gil, “α2-adrenoceptor agonists inhibit vitreal glutamate and aspartate accumulation and preserve retinal function after transient ischemia,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 296, no. 1, pp. 216–223, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. D. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, Y. H. Noh et al., “Brimonidine blocks glutamate excitotoxicity-induced oxidative stress and preserves mitochondrial transcription factor a in ischemic retinal injury,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 10, Article ID e47098, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. C.-J. Dong, Y. Guo, P. Agey, L. Wheeler, and W. A. Hare, “α2 adrenergic modulation of NMDA receptor function as a major mechanism of RGC protection in experimental glaucoma and retinal excitotoxicity,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 4515–4522, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. E. WoldeMussie, G. Ruiz, M. Wijono, and L. A. Wheeler, “Neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells by brimonidine in rats with laser-induced chronic ocular hypertension,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 2849–2855, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. R. K. Lai, T. Chun, D. Hasson, S. Lee, F. Mehrbod, and L. Wheeler, “Alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist protects retinal function after acute retinal ischemic injury in the rat,” Visual Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 175–185, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. H. Gao, X. Qiao, F. Hefti, J. G. Hollyfield, and B. Knusel, “Elevated mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in retinal ganglion cell layer after optic nerve injury,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1840–1847, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. P. Lafuente, M. P. Villegas-Pérez, S. Mayor, M. E. Aguilera, J. Miralles de Imperial, and M. Vidal-Sanz, “Neuroprotective effects of brimonidine against transient ischemia-induced retinal ganglion cell death: A dose response in vivo study,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 181–189, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. R. Ferencz, G. Gilady, O. Harel, M. Belkin, and E. I. Assia, “Topical brimonidine reduces collateral damage caused by laser photocoagulation for choroidal neovascularization,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 243, no. 9, pp. 877–880, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. D. W. Evans, S. L. Hosking, D. Gherghel, and J. D. Bartlett, “Contrast sensitivity improves after brimonidine therapy in primary open angle glaucoma: A case for neuroprotection,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 87, no. 12, pp. 1463–1465, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. Krupin, J. M. Liebmann, D. S. Greenfield, R. Ritch, and S. Gardiner, “A randomized trial of brimonidine versus timolol in preserving visual function: results from the low-pressure glaucoma treatment study,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 671–681, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. P. Fagone and S. Jackowski, “Phosphatidylcholine and the CDP-choline cycle,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, vol. 1831, no. 3, pp. 523–532, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. J. J. Secades, “Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, update,” Revista de Neurologia (Spanish), vol. 63, no. S03, pp. S1–S73, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  98. G. Roberti, L. Tanga, M. Michelessi et al., “Cytidine 51-diphosphocholine (Citicoline) in glaucoma: Rationale of its use, current evidence and future perspectives,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 28401–28417, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. M. Wu and B. R. Maple, “Amino acid neurotransmitters in the retina: a functional overview,” Vision Research, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1371–1384, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. V. Parisi, F. Oddone, L. Ziccardi, G. Roberti, G. Coppola, and G. Manni, “Citicoline and retinal ganglion cells: effects on morphology and function,” Current Neuropharmacology, vol. 15, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. H. P. Chang, S. K. Yoon, S. N. Hae et al., “Neuroprotective effect of citicoline against KA-induced neurotoxicity in the rat retina,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 350–358, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. F. Schuettauf, R. Rejdak, S. Thaler et al., “Citicoline and lithium rescue retinal ganglion cells following partial optic nerve crush in the rat,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 1128–1134, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. V. Parisi, G. Coppola, L. Ziccardi, G. Gallinaro, and B. Falsini, “Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine (Citicoline): A pilot study in patients with non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 465–474, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. J. P. Giraldi, M. Virno, G. Covelli, G. Grechi, and F. De Gregorio, “Therapeutic value of citicoline in the treatment of glaucoma (computerized and automated perimetric investigation),” International Ophthalmology, vol. 13, no. 1-2, pp. 109–112, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. M. Virno, J. Pecori-Giraldi, A. Liguori, and F. De Gregorio, “The protective effect of citicoline on the progression of the perimetric defects in glaucomatous patients (perimetric study with a 10-year follow-up),” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, Supplement, vol. 78, no. 232, pp. 56-57, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. V. Parisi, G. Manni, G. Colacino, and M. G. Bucci, “Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) improves retinal and cortical responses in patients with glaucoma,” Ophthalmology, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 1126–1134, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. V. Parisi, “Electrophysiological assessment of glaucomatous visual dysfunction during treatment with cytidine-5-diphosphocholine (citicoline): A study of 8 years of follow-up,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 91–102, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. L. Ottobelli, G. L. Manni, M. Centofanti, M. Iester, F. Allevena, and L. Rossetti, “Citicoline oral solution in glaucoma: Is there a role in slowing disease progression?” Ophthalmologica, vol. 229, no. 4, pp. 219–226, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. V. Parisi, M. Centofanti, L. Ziccardi et al., “Treatment with citicoline eye drops enhances retinal function and neural conduction along the visual pathways in open angle glaucoma,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 253, no. 8, pp. 1327–1340, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. S. R. Pandi-Perumal, V. Srinivasan, G. J. M. Maestroni, D. P. Cardinali, B. Poeggeler, and R. Hardeland, “Melatonin: nature's most versatile biological signal?” FEBS Journal, vol. 273, no. 13, pp. 2813–2838, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. G. Tosini, K. Baba, C. K. Hwang, and P. M. Iuvone, “Melatonin: an underappreciated player in retinal physiology and pathophysiology,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 103, pp. 82–89, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. R. M. Slominski, R. J. Reiter, N. Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, R. S. Ostrom, and A. T. Slominski, “Melatonin membrane receptors in peripheral tissues: distribution and functions,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 351, no. 2, pp. 152–166, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. N. N. Osborne, “Serotonin and melatonin in the iris/ciliary processes and their involvement in intraocular pressure,” Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars), vol. 54, pp. 57–64, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  114. M. M. Macchi and J. N. Bruce, “Human pineal physiology and functional significance of melatonin,” Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, vol. 25, no. 3-4, pp. 177–195, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. D.-X. Tan, L. C. Manchester, E. Esteban-Zubero, Z. Zhou, and R. J. Reiter, “Melatonin as a potent and inducible endogenous antioxidant: synthesis and metabolism,” Molecules, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 18886–18906, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. I. Chowdhury, A. Sengupta, and S. K. Maitra, “Melatonin: Fifty years of scientific journey from the discovery in bovine pineal gland to delineation of functions in human,” Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 289–304, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. P. Wongprayoon and P. Govitrapong, “Melatonin as a mitochondrial protector in neurodegenerative diseases,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. V. Srinivasan, D. P. Cardinali, U. S. Srinivasan et al., “Therapeutic potential of melatonin and its analogs in Parkinson's disease: focus on sleep and neuroprotection,” Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 297–317, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. F.-Q. Liang, L. Green, C. Wang, R. Alssadi, and B. F. Godley, “Melatonin protects human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells against oxidative stress,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 1069–1075, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. F. Q. Liang, T. S. Aleman, A. V. ZaixinYang, S. G. Cideciyan, S. G. Jacobson, and J. Bennett, “Melatonin delays photoreceptor degeneration in the rds/rds mouse,” NeuroReport, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1011–1014, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  121. K. Baba, N. Pozdeyev, F. Mazzoni et al., “Melatonin modulates visual function and cell viability in the mouse retina via the MT1 melatonin receptor,” Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 35, pp. 15043–15048, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. S. Alcantara-Contreras, K. Baba, and G. Tosini, “Removal of melatonin receptor type 1 increases intraocular pressure and retinal ganglion cells death in the mouse,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 494, no. 1, pp. 61–64, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. M. C. Moreno, P. Sande, H. A. Marcos, N. De Zavalía, M. I. K. Sarmiento, and R. E. Rosenstein, “Effect of glaucoma on the retinal glutamate/glutamine cycle activity,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1161-1162, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. D. A. Sáenz, A. P. Goldin, L. Minces, M. Chianelli, M. I. K. Sarmiento, and R. E. Rosenstein, “Effect of melatonin on the retinal glutamate/glutamine cycle in the golden hamster retina,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 18, no. 15, pp. 1912-1913, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. A. Crooke, F. Huete-Toral, A. Martínez-Águila, A. Martín-Gil, and J. Pintor, “Melatonin and its analog 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine potentiate adrenergic receptor-mediated ocular hypotensive effects in rabbits: Significance for combination therapy in glaucoma,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 346, no. 1, pp. 138–145, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. J. B. Serle, R.-F. Wang, W. M. Peterson, R. Plourde, and B. R. Yerxa, “Effect of 5-MCA-NAT, a putative melatonin MT3 receptor agonist, on intraocular pressure in glaucomatous monkey eyes,” Journal of Glaucoma, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 385–388, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. N. Pescosolido, V. Gatto, A. Stefanucci, and D. Rusciano, “Oral treatment with the melatonin agonist agomelatine lowers the intraocular pressure of glaucoma patients,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 201–205, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. M. C. Moreno, J. Campanelli, P. Sande, D. A. Sáenz, M. I. Keller Sarmiento, and R. E. Rosenstein, “Retinal oxidative stress induced by high intraocular pressure,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 803–812, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. M. L. Dubocovich, M. A. Rivera-Bermudez, M. J. Gerdin, and M. I. Masana, “Molecular pharmacology, regulation and function of mammalian melatonin receptors,” Front Biosci, vol. 8, pp. d1093–d108, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  130. A. Carocci, A. Catalano, and M. S. Sinicropi, “Melatonergic drugs in development,” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 6, pp. 127–137, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  131. F. Huete-Toral, A. Crooke, A. Martínez-Águila, and J. Pintor, “Melatonin receptors trigger cAMP production and inhibit chloride movements in nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 352, no. 1, article no. A23, pp. 119–128, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. J. Flammer, “The vascular concept of glaucoma,” Survey of Ophthalmology, vol. 38, supplement, pp. S3–S6, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. N. N. Osborne, R. J. Casson, J. P. M. Wood, G. Chidlow, M. Graham, and J. Melena, “Retinal ischemia: mechanisms of damage and potential therapeutic strategies,” Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 91–147, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. V. P. Costa, A. Harris, E. Stefánsson et al., “The effects of antiglaucoma and systemic medications on ocular blood flow,” Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 769–805, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. C. Kaur, V. Sivakumar, R. Robinson, W. S. Foulds, C. D. Luu, and E.-A. Ling, “Neuroprotective effect of melatonin against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell death in neonatal rats,” Journal of Pineal Research, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 190–206, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa et al., “The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma,” Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 359–393, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. S. Arangino, A. Cagnacci, M. Angiolucci et al., “Effects of melatonin on vascular reactivity, catecholamine levels, and blood pressure in healthy men,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 83, no. 9, pp. 1417–1419, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. S. Suzen, “Recent developments of melatonin related antioxidant compounds,” Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 409–419, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. P. Gressens, L. Schwendimann, I. Husson et al., “Agomelatine, a melatonin receptor agonist with 5-HT2C receptor antagonist properties, protects the developing murine white matter against excitotoxicity,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 588, no. 1, pp. 58–63, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. A. Martínez-Águila, B. Fonseca, A. Bergua, and J. Pintor, “Melatonin analogue agomelatine reduces rabbit's intraocular pressure in normotensive and hypertensive conditions,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 701, no. 1-3, pp. 213–217, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. M. J. Millan, A. Gobert, F. Lejeune et al., “The novel melatonin agonist agomelatine (S20098) is an antagonist at 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptors, blockade of which enhances the activity of frontocortical dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 306, no. 3, pp. 954–964, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. S. Conway, S. J. Canning, H. E. Howell et al., “Characterisation of human melatonin mt1 and MT2 receptors by CRE-luciferase reporter assay,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 390, no. 1-2, pp. 15–24, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. C. Álamo, F. López-Muñoz, and M. José Armada, “Agomelatina: un nuevo enfoque farmacológico en el tratamiento de la depresión con traducción clínica,” Psiquiatría Biológica, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 125–139, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  144. S.-W. Ying, B. Rusak, P. Delagrange, E. Mocaër, P. Renard, and B. Guardiola-Lemaître, “Melatonin analogues as agonists and antagonists in the circadian system and other brain areas,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 296, no. 1, pp. 33–42, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. G. Bonanno, R. Giambelli, L. Raiteri et al., “Chronic antidepressants reduce depolarization-evoked glutamate release and protein interactions favoring formation of SNARE complex in hippocampus,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 3270–3279, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. S. Gupta, P. Singh, B. Sharma, and B. Sharma, “Neuroprotective effects of agomelatine and vinpocetine against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced vascular dementia,” Current Neurovascular Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 240–252, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  147. B. P. Jacobs and W. S. Browner, “Ginkgo biloba: A living fossil,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 341-342, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. T. Wei, F.-F. Xiong, S.-D. Wang, K. Wang, Y.-Y. Zhang, and Q.-H. Zhang, “Flavonoid ingredients of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract regulate lipid metabolism through Sp1-mediated carnitine palmitoyltranferase 1A up-regulation,” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 21, no. 1, article no. 87, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. J. Kobus-Cisowska, E. Flaczyk, M. Rudzińska, and D. Kmiecik, “Antioxidant properties of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in meatballs,” Meat Science, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 174–180, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. I. Maitra, L. Marcocci, M. T. Droy-Lefaix, and L. Packer, “Peroxyl radical scavenging activity of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1649–1655, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. H. Scholtyssek, W. Damerau, R. Wessel, and I. Schimke, “Antioxidative activity of ginkgolides against superoxide in an aprotic environment,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 183–190, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. R. Abdel-Kader, S. Hauptmann, U. Keil et al., “Stabilization of mitochondrial function by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761),” Pharmacological Research, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 493–502, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. A. Eckert, U. Keil, I. Scherping, S. Hauptmann, and W. E. Müller, “Stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential and improvement of neuronal energy metabolism by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1056, pp. 474–485, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. K. K. Abu-Amero, J. Morales, and T. M. Bosley, “Mitochondrial abnormalities in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 2533–2541, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. A. Eckert, U. Keil, S. Kressmann et al., “Effects of EGb 761 Ginkgo biloba extract on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress,” Pharmacopsychiatry, vol. 36, 1, pp. S15–S23, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. M. Seif-El-Nasr and A. A. Abd El-Fattah, “Lipid peroxide, phospholipids, glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity in rat brain after ischaemia: Effect of ginkgo biloba extract,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 273–278, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. E. Dumont, E. Petit, T. Tarrade, and A. Nouvelot, “UV-C irradiation-induced peroxidative degradation of microsomal fatty acids and proteins: Protection by an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGn 761),” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 197–203, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. E. Dumont, P. D'Arbigny, and A. Nouvelot, “Protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids against iron-dependent lipid peroxidation by a Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761),” Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 83–88, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. K. Kose and P. Dogan, “Lipoperoxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide in human erythrocyte membranes. 2. Comparison of the antioxidant effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) with those of water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants,” Journal of International Medical Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 9–18, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. S. A. Barth, G. Iselmann, R. Engemann, and H. T. Heidemann, “Influences of Ginkgo biloba on cyclosporin a induced lipid peroxidation in human liver microsomes in comparison to vitamin E, glutathione and N-acetylcysteine,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1521–1526, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. M. T. Droy-Lefaix, “Effect of the antioxidant action of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on aging and oxidative stress,” Age (Omaha), vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 141–149, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. G. C. Chiou, “Review: effects of nitric oxide on eye diseases and their treatment,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 189–198, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. J. S. Beckman and W. H. Koppenol, “Nitric oxide, superoxide, and peroxynitrite: the good, the bad, and the ugly,” American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, vol. 271, no. 5, pp. C1424–C1437, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. A. W. Siu, S. W. Shan, K. K. Li et al., “Glutathione attenuates nitric oxide-induced retinal lipid and protein changes,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 135–146, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. L. Marcocci, J. J. Maguire, M. T. Droy-Lefaix, and L. Packer, “The nitric oxide-scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 201, no. 2, pp. 748–755, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. H. Kobuchi, M. T. Droy-Lefaix, Y. Christen, and L. Packer, “Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761): Inhibitory effect on nitric oxide duction in the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 897–903, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. M.-T. Droy-Lefaix, B. Bonhomme, and M. Doly, “Protective effect of ginkgo biloba extract (EGB 761) on free radical-induced changes in the electroretinogram of isolated rat retina,” Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 571–574, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. F. Sofi, L. Mannini, R. Marcucci et al., “Role of haemorheological factors in patients with retinal vein occlusion,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1215–1219, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. Y. Wu, S. Li, W. Cui, X. Zu, J. Du, and F. Wang, “Ginkgo biloba extract improves coronary blood flow in healthy elderly adults: Role of endothelium-dependent vasodilation,” Phytomedicine, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 164–169, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. H. S. Chung, A. Harris, J. K. Kristinsson, T. A. Ciulla, C. Kagemann, and R. Ritch, “Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocity,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 233–240, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. L. Quaranta, S. Bettelli, M. G. Uva, F. Semeraro, R. Turano, and E. Gandolfo, “Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on preexisting visual field damage in normal tension glaucoma,” Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 359–364, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. T. N. Malishevskaia and I. G. Dolgova, “Options for correction of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma,” Vestn Oftalmol, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 72-73, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  173. J. Baleriola, J. Garcia-Feijoo, J. M. Martinez-de-la-Casa, A. Fernandez-Cruz, E. J. de la Rosa, and R. Fernandez-Durango, “Apoptosis in the trabecular meshwork of glaucomatous patients,” Molecular Vision, vol. 14, pp. 1513–1516, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  174. R. W. Nickells, “Apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma: an update of the molecular pathways involved in cell death,” Survey of Ophthalmology, vol. 43, supplement 1, pp. S151–S161, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. J. V. Smith, A. J. Burdick, P. Golik, I. Khan, D. Wallace, and Y. Luo, “Anti-apoptotic properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in differentiated PC12 cells,” Cellular and Molecular Biology (Noisy-le-grand), vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 699–707, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. J. Shen, W. Lee, Y. Gu, Y. Tong, P. C. W. Fung, and L. Tong, “Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) inhibits mitochondria-dependent caspase pathway and prevents apoptosis in hypoxia-reoxygenated cardiomyocytes,” Chinese Medicine, vol. 6, article no. 8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. Z.-G. Xie, X.-W. Wu, C.-R. Zhuang et al., “Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on morphology and function of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve transection in guinea pigs,” Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 940–946, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. L. Ernster and G. Dallner, “Biochemical, physiological and medical aspects of ubiquinone function,” BBA - Molecular Basis of Disease, vol. 1271, no. 1, pp. 195–204, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. R. Saini, “Coenzyme Q10: The essential nutrient,” Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 466-467, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. C. Schmelzer, I. Lindner, G. Rimbach, P. Niklowitz, T. Menke, and F. Döring, “Functions of coenzyme Q10 in inflammation and gene expression,” BioFactors, vol. 32, no. 1–4, pp. 179–183, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. M. Spindler, M. F. Beal, and C. Henchcliffe, “Coenzyme Q10 effects in neurodegenerative disease,” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, vol. 5, pp. 597–610, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. B. Uttara, A. V. Singh, P. Zamboni, and R. T. Mahajan, “Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options,” Current Neuropharmacology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 65–74, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. M. Somayajulu, S. McCarthy, M. Hung, M. Sikorska, H. Borowy-Borowski, and S. Pandey, “Role of mitochondria in neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress; Neuroprotection by Coenzyme Q10,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 618–627, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. Y. H. Noh, K.-Y. Kim, M. S. Shim et al., “Inhibition of oxidative stress by coenzyme Q10 increases mitochondrial mass and improves bioenergetic function in optic nerve head astrocytes,” Cell Death & Disease, vol. 4, no. 10, article e820, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. R. J. Casson, “Possible role of excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of glaucoma,” Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 54–63, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. A. Atlante, P. Calissano, A. Bobba, S. Giannattasio, E. Marra, and S. Passarella, “Glutamate neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondria,” FEBS Letters, vol. 497, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. E. B. Dreyer, D. Zurakowski, R. A. Schumer, S. M. Podos, and S. A. Lipton, “Elevated glutamate levels in the vitreous body of humans and monkeys with glaucoma,” JAMA Ophtalmology, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 299–305, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. N. N. Osborne, G. Chidlow, M. S. Nash, and J. P. M. Wood, “The potential of neuroprotection in glaucoma treatment,” Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 82–92, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. Y. Nakajima, Y. Inokuchi, M. Nishi, M. Shimazawa, K. Otsubo, and H. Hara, “Coenzyme Q10 protects retinal cells against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo,” Brain Research, vol. 1226, pp. 226–233, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. C. Nucci, R. Tartaglione, A. Cerulli et al., “Retinal Damage Caused by High Intraocular Pressure-Induced Transient Ischemia is Prevented by Coenzyme Q10 in Rat,” International Review of Neurobiology, vol. 82, pp. 397–406, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. R. Russo, F. Cavaliere, L. Rombolà et al., “Rational basis for the development of coenzyme Q10 as a neurotherapeutic agent for retinal protection,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 173, pp. 575–582, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. D. Lee, M. S. Shim, K.-Y. Kim et al., “Coenzyme Q10 inhibits glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial alteration in a mouse model of glaucoma,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 993–1005, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. H. Levkovitch-Verbin, “Retinal ganglion cell apoptotic pathway in glaucoma: initiating and downstream mechanisms,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 220, pp. 37–57, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. S. Choudhury, Y. Liu, A. F. Clark, and I.-H. Pang, “Caspase-7: a critical mediator of optic nerve injury-induced retinal ganglion cell death,” Molecular Neurodegeneration, vol. 10, article 40, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  195. R. Zalewska, B. Zalewski, J. Reszec, Z. Mariak, L. Zimnoch, and E. Proniewska-Skretek, “The expressions of Fas and caspase-3 in human glaucomatous optic nerve axons,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. BR274–BR278, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. M. Lulli, E. Witort, L. Papucci et al., “oenzyme Q10 instilled as eye drops on the cornea reaches the retina and protects retinal layers from apoptosis in a mouse model of kainate-induced retinal damageCoQ10 eye drops protect retinal cells from apoptosis,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 53, no. 13, pp. 8295–8302, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. V. Parisi, M. Centofanti, S. Gandolfi et al., “Effects of coenzyme Q10 in conjunction with vitamin e on retinal-evoked and cortical-evoked responses in patients with open-angle glaucoma,” Journal of Glaucoma, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 391–404, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. J. Niño, K. Tahvanainen, H. Uusitalo et al., “Cardiovascular effects of ophthalmic 0.5% timolol aqueous solution and 0.1% timolol hydrogel,” Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 271–278, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. N. Takahashi, T. Iwasaka, T. Sugiura et al., “Effect of coenzyme Q10 on hemodynamic response to ocular timolol,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 462–468, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. C. H. Beckman, “Phenolic-storing cells: Keys to programmed cell death and periderm formation in wilt disease resistance and in general defence responses in plants?” Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 101–110, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. K. B. Pandey and S. I. Rizvi, “Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 270–278, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. A. Silvia, M. Y. Avramovich-Tirosh, L. Reznichenko et al., “Multifunctional activities of green tea catechins in neuroprotection: modulation of cell survival genes, iron-dependent oxidative stress and PKC signaling pathway,” Neurosignals, vol. 14, no. 1-2, pp. 46–60, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. O. Weinreb, S. Mandel, and M. B. H. Youdim, “Gene and protein expression profiles of anti- and pro-apoptotic actions of dopamine, R-apomorphine, green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechine-3-gallate, and melatonin,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 993, pp. 351–393, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. K. Ishige, D. Schubert, and Y. Sagara, “Flavonoids protect neuronal cells from oxidative stress by three distinct mechanisms,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 433–446, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. H. Schroeter, C. Boyd, J. P. E. Spencer, R. J. Williams, E. Cadenas, and C. Rice-Evans, “MAPK signaling in neurodegeneration: Influences of flavonoids and of nitric oxide,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 861–880, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. J. H. Chung, J. H. Han, E. J. Hwang et al., “Dual mechanisms of green tea extract (EGCG)-induced cell survival in human epidermal keratinocytes,” Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) Journal, vol. 17, no. 13, pp. 1913–1915, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  207. C. Chen, R. Yu, E. D. Owuor, and A.-N. Tony Kong, “Activation of antioxidant-response element (ARE), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and caspases by major green tea polyphenol components during cell survival and death,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 605–612, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. M. Lorenz, S. Wessler, E. Follmann et al., “A constituent of green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase by a phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase-, cAMP-dependent protein kinase-, and Akt-dependent pathway and leads to endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 7, pp. 6190–6195, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. Y. Levites, T. Amit, S. Mandel, and M. B. H. Youdim, “NeuropNeuroprotection and neurorescue against Abeta toxicity and PKC-dependent release of nonamyloidogenic soluble precursor protein by green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate,” Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) Journal, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 952–954, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. K. Ono, Y. Yoshiike, A. Takashima, K. Hasegawa, H. Naiki, and M. Yamada, “Potent anti-amyloidogenic and fibril-destabilizing effects of polyphenols in vitro: implications for the prevention and therapeutics of Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 172–181, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. B. Zhang, R. Safa, D. Rusciano, and N. N. Osborne, “Epigallocatechin gallate, an active ingredient from green tea, attenuates damaging influences to the retina caused by ischemia/reperfusion,” Brain Research, vol. 1159, no. 1, pp. 40–53, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. C. Shen, L. Chen, L. Jiang, and T. Y. Y. Lai, “Neuroprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in a mouse model of chronic glaucoma,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 600, pp. 132–136, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  213. J. Xie, L. Jiang, T. Zhang, Y. Jin, D. Yang, and F. Chen, “Neuroprotective effects of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in optic nerve crush model in rats,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 479, no. 1, pp. 26–30, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  214. N. N. Osborne and J. P. M. Wood, “Metipranolol blunts nitric oxide-induced lipid peroxidation and death of retinal photoreceptors: a comparison with other anti-glaucoma drugs,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 3787–3795, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  215. W. Ju, I. Chung, K. Kim et al., “Sodium nitroprusside selectively induces apoptotic cell death in the outer retina of the rat,” NeuroReport, vol. 12, no. 18, pp. 4075–4079, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  216. B. Zhang and N. N. Osborne, “Oxidative-induced retinal degeneration is attenuated by epigallocatechin gallate,” Brain Research, vol. 1124, no. 1, pp. 176–187, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. M. Suganuma, S. Okabe, M. Oniyama, Y. Tada, H. Ito, and H. Fujiki, “Wide distribution of [3H](−)-epigallocatechin gallate, a cancer preventive tea polyphenol, in mouse tissue,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1771–1776, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  218. R. A. Isbrucker, J. Bausch, J. A. Edwards, and E. Wolz, “Safety studies on epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) preparations. Part 1: Genotoxicity,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 626–635, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  219. B. Falsini, D. Marangoni, T. Salgarello et al., “Effect of epigallocatechin-gallate on inner retinal function in ocular hypertension and glaucoma: A short-term study by pattern electroretinogram,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 247, no. 9, pp. 1223–1233, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. B. B. Aggarwal, A. Bhardwaj, R. S. Aggarwal, N. P. Seeram, S. Shishodia, and Y. Takada, “Role of resveratrol in prevention and therapy of cancer: preclinical and clinical studies,” Anticancer Reseach, vol. 24, no. 5A, pp. 2783–2840, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. S. Bradamante, L. Barenghi, and A. Villa, “Cardiovascular protective effects of resveratrol,” Cardiovascular Drug Reviews, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 169–188, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. H. Wang, Y.-J. Yang, H.-Y. Qian, Q. Zhang, H. Xu, and J.-J. Li, “Resveratrol in cardiovascular disease: what is known from current research?” Heart Failure Reviews, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 437–448, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. J. A. Baur and D. A. Sinclair, “Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: the in vivo evidence,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 493–506, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  224. V. Cucciolla, A. Borriello, A. Oliva, P. Galletti, V. Zappia, and F. D. Ragione, “Resveratrol: from basic science to the clinic,” Cell Cycle, vol. 6, no. 20, pp. 2495–2510, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  225. A. L. Holme and S. Pervaiz, “Resveratrol in cell fate decisions,” Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 59–63, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  226. M. Kodali, V. K. Parihar, B. Hattiangady, V. Mishra, B. Shuai, and A. K. Shetty, “Resveratrol prevents age-related memory and mood dysfunction with increased hippocampal neurogenesis and microvasculature, and reduced glial activation,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, article 8075, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  227. S. S. Karuppagounder, J. T. Pinto, H. Xu, H.-L. Chen, M. F. Beal, and G. E. Gibson, “Dietary supplementation with resveratrol reduces plaque pathology in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 111–118, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  228. H. Capiralla, V. Vingtdeux, H. Zhao et al., “Resveratrol mitigates lipopolysaccharide- and Aβ-mediated microglial inflammation by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB/STAT signaling cascade,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 461–472, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  229. D. Albani, L. Polito, S. Batelli et al., “The SIRT1 activator resveratrol protects SK-N-BE cells from oxidative stress and against toxicity caused by α-synuclein or amyloid-β (1-42) peptide,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 1445–1456, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  230. A. Kumar, P. S. Naidu, N. Seghal, and S. S. V. Padi, “Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against intracerebroventricular colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats,” Pharmacology, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 17–26, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  231. C. Luna, G. Li, P. B. Liton et al., “Resveratrol prevents the expression of glaucoma markers induced by chronic oxidative stress in trabecular meshwork cells,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 198–204, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  232. D. Pirhan, N. Yüksel, E. Emre, A. Cengiz, and D. Kürşat Yildiz, “Riluzole- and resveratrol-induced delay of retinal ganglion cell death in an experimental model of glaucoma,” Current Eye Research, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 59–69, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  233. J. D. Lindsey, K. X. Duong-Polk, D. Hammond, C. K.-S. Leung, and R. N. Weinreb, “Protection of injured retinal ganglion cell dendrites and unfolded protein response resolution after long-term dietary resveratrol,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1969–1981, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  234. N. Razali, R. Agarwal, P. Agarwal et al., “Role of adenosine receptors in resveratrol-induced intraocular pressure lowering in rats with steroid-induced ocular hypertension,” Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 54–66, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  235. M. Y. Avila, R. A. Stone, and M. M. Civan, “A 1-, A 2a- and A 3-subtype adenosine receptors modulate intraocular pressure in the mouse,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 241–245, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  236. X. Q. Liu, B. J. Wu, W. H. Pan et al., “Resveratrol mitigates rat retinal ischemic injury: the roles of matrix metalloproteinase-9, inducible nitric oxide, and heme oxygenase-1,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  237. H. Hosseinzadeh and M. Nassiri-Asl, “Review of the protective effects of rutin on the metabolic function as an important dietary flavonoid,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 783–788, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  238. H. Kim, H. Kong, B. Choi et al., “Metabolic and pharmacological properties of rutin, a dietary quercetin glycoside, for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1499–1509, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  239. A. Ganeshpurkar and A. K. Saluja, “The Pharmacological Potential of Rutin,” Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 149–164, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  240. N. Pescosolido and A. Librando, “Oral administration of an association of forskolin, rutin and vitamins B1 and B2 potentiates the hypotonising effects of pharmacological treatments in POAG patients,” La Clinica Terapeutica, vol. 161, no. 3, pp. e81–e85, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  241. M. Nebbioso, G. Belcaro, A. Librando, D. Rusciano, R. D. Steigerwalt Jr., and N. Pescosolido, “Forskolin and rutin prevent intraocular pressure spikes after Nd:YAG laser iridotomy,” Panminerva Medica, vol. 54, suppl 4, no. 1, pp. 77–82, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  242. M. Nebbioso, D. Rusciano, B. Pucci, A. M. Zicari, R. Grenga, and N. Pescocolido, “Treatment of glaucomatous patients by means of food supplement to reduce the ocular discomfort: A double blind randomized trial,” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1117–1122, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  243. L. Machawal and A. Kumar, “Possible involvement of nitric oxide mechanism in the neuroprotective effect of rutin against immobilization stress induced anxiety like behaviour, oxidative damage in mice,” Pharmacological Reports, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 15–21, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  244. K. B. Magalingam, A. Radhakrishnan, and N. Haleagrahara, “Rutin, a bioflavonoid antioxidant protects rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 235–240, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  245. J.-Y. Na, S. Kim, K. Song, and J. Kwon, “Rutin Alleviates Prion Peptide-Induced Cell Death Through Inhibiting Apoptotic Pathway Activation in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1071–1079, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  246. K. B. Magalingam, A. Radhakrishnan, P. Ramdas, and N. Haleagrahara, “Quercetin glycosides induced neuroprotection by changes in the gene expression in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease,” Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 609–617, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  247. M. Nakayama, M. Aihara, Y.-N. Chen, M. Araie, K. Tomita-Yokotani, and T. Iwashina, “Neuroprotective effects of flavonoids on hypoxia-, glutamate-, and oxidative stress-induced retinal ganglion cell death,” Molecular Vision, vol. 17, pp. 1784–1793, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  248. M. S. Ola, M. M. Ahmed, R. Ahmad, H. M. Abuohashish, S. S. Al-Rejaie, and A. S. Alhomida, “Neuroprotective effects of rutin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retina,” Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 440–448, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  249. C. Cunha, R. Brambilla, and K. L. Thomas, “A simple role for BDNF in learning and memory?” Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 3, article 1, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  250. J. Lu, D.-M. Wu, B. Hu, Y.-L. Zheng, Z.-F. Zhang, and Y.-J. Wang, “NGF-dependent activation of Trka pathway: A mechanism for the neuroprotective effect of troxerutin in d-galactose-treated mice,” Brain Pathology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 952–965, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  251. M. S. Shim, K.-Y. Kim, and W.-K. Ju, “Role of cyclic AMP in the eye with glaucoma,” BMB Reports, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 60–70, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  252. R. G. Corredor, E. F. Trakhtenberg, W. Pita-Thomas, X. Jin, Y. Hu, and J. L. Goldberg, “Soluble adenylyl cyclase activity is necessary for retinal ganglion cell survival and axon growth,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 32, no. 22, pp. 7734–7744, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus