Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Therapeutic Properties of Stingless Bee Honey in Comparison with European Bee Honey

Table 1

Different physicochemical characteristics of European bee honey and stingless bee honey.

Physicochemical propertiesEuropean bee HoneysStingless bee honeys
Tualang honey, Apis dorsata [2830]Manuka honey, Apis mellifera [31, 32]Trigona spp. [6, 8, 27]

AppearanceDark brownLight dark brownAmber brown
Moisture content (%)23.3018.7025.00–31.00
pH3.55–4.003.20–4.203.15–4.66
Total reducing sugars (%)67.6075.8054.90–87.00
Glucose (%)29.5035.908.10–31.00
Fructose (%)29.6040.0031.11–40.20
Sucrose (%)0.602.800.31–1.26
Maltose (%)7.851.20ND
Calcium (%)0.181.150.017
Potassium (%)0.511.000.07
Sodium (%)0.260.00080.012
Magnesium (%)0.111.000.004
Specific gravity1.341.39ND
Electrical conductivity (mS/cm)0.75–1.370.530.49–8.77
Hydroxymethylfurfural HMF (mg/kg)46.17400.008.80–69.00
Ash content (g/100 g)0.190.030.01–0.12

ND: not detected.

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