Table of Contents
Anatomy Research International
Volume 2011, Article ID 580864, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/580864
Research Article

Hip Anatomy and Ontogeny of Lower Limb Musculature in Three Species of Nonhuman Primates

1Drayer Physical Therapy Institute, Austintown, OH 44515, USA
2School of Physical Therapy, Slippery Rock University, Slippery Rock, PA 16057, USA
3Medical Scientist Training Program, Carver College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
4HealthPoint, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
5Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA

Received 11 February 2011; Revised 2 April 2011; Accepted 2 May 2011

Academic Editor: Adam D. Sylvester

Copyright © 2011 Jeremy J. Baker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Atzeva, B. Demes, M. L. Kirkbride, A. M. Burrows, and T. D. Smith, “Comparison of hind limb muscle mass in neonate and adult prosimian primates,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 231–242, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. L. Anemone, “The VCL hypothesis revisited: patterns of femoral morphology among quadrupedal and saltatorial prosimian primates,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 373–393, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. Anapol and K. Barry, “Fiber architecture of the extensors of the hindlimb in semiterrestrial and arboreal guenons,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 429–447, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Demes, J. G. Fleagle, and P. Lemelin, “Myological correlates of prosimian leaping,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 385–399, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. L. Anemone, “The functional anatomy of the hip and thigh in primates,” in Postcranial Adaptation in Nonhuman Primates, D. L. Gebo, Ed., pp. 151–174, Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb, Ill, USA, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  6. P. Dewire and P. A. Simkin, “Subchondral plate thickness reflects tensile stress in the primate acetabulum,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 838–841, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Niemitz and H. Sprankel, “Fruhe postnatale ossification bei Tarsius bancanus (Hosfield, 1821 (Mammalia Primates) un ihr Bezug zur Nestfluchter-Nesthocker-hypothese,” Z. Morph. Tiere, vol. 79, pp. 155–163, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  8. D. M. Glassman, “Growth and development in the saddle-back tamarin: the sequence and timing of dental eruption and epiphyseal fusion,” The American Journal of Primatology, vol. 5, pp. 51–59, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  9. E. S. Watts, “A comparative study of neonatal skeletal development in Cebus and other primates,” Folia Primatologica, vol. 54, no. 3-4, pp. 217–224, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. S. Watts, “Skeletal development,” in Comparative Primate Biology. Vol. 3: Reproduction and Development, W. R. Dukelow and J. Erwin, Eds., pp. 415–439, Liss, New York, NY, USA, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  11. F. K. Jouffroy, La musculature des members chez les le'muriens de Madagascar. E' tude descriptive et comparative, Ph.D. Dissertation, Paris University, 1962.
  12. J. G. Fleagle, “Locomotor behavior and muscular anatomy of sympatric Malaysian leaf monkeys (Presbytis obscura and Presbytis melalophos),” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 297–307, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Hamada, “Growth of the locomotor apparatus of the Japanese macaque based on analysis of muscular weights and limb segments,” Journal of Anthropological Society of Nippon, vol. 91, pp. 347–362, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  14. D. A. Raichlen, “Ontogeny of limb mass distribution in infant baboons (Papio cynocephalus),” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 452–467, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Walker, “Locomotor adaptations in past and present prosimian primates,” in Primate Locomotion, F. A. Jenkins, Ed., pp. 349–381, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  16. G. A. Doyle, “Development of behavior in prosimians with special reference to the lesser bushbaby, Galago senegalensis moholi,” in The Study of Prosimian Behavior, G. A. Doyle and R. D. Martin, Eds., pp. 157–206, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  17. R. D. Martin, “A preliminary field-study of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus J.F. Miller 1777),” Journal of Comparative Ethology, vol. 9, pp. 43–89, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  18. R. Hoffmann and R. Foerg, “Development of locomotion and social behavior in infants of the fat-tailed dwarf lemur,” Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde, vol. 48, pp. 129–136, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  19. J. Fietz and K. H. Dausmann, “Costs and potential benefits of parental care in the nocturnal fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius),” Folia Primatologica, vol. 74, no. 5-6, pp. 246–258, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. T. Nash, “Sex differences in the behavior and the social interactions of immature Galago senegalensis braccatus,” Folia Primatologica, vol. 74, no. 5-6, pp. 285–300, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. T. Nash, “Juveniles in nongregarious primates,” in Juvenile Primates: Life History, Development, and Behavior, M. E. Pereira and L. A. Fairbanks, Eds., pp. 119–137, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Petter-Rousseaux, “Recherches sur la biologie de la reproduction des primates inférieurs,” Mammalia, vol. 26, supplement 1, pp. 7–88, 1962. View at Google Scholar
  23. P. M. Kappeler and M. E. Pereira, Primate Life Histories and Socioecology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2003.
  24. W. R. Rice, “Analyzing tables of statistical tests,” Evolution, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 223–225, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  25. M. W. Hamrick, “A chondral modeling theory revisited,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 201, no. 3, pp. 201–208, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. L. Mork, W. E. Horton, and C. J. Vinyard, “A comparative analysis of the articular cartilage in the temporomandibular joint of gouging and nongouging new world monkeys,” in The Evolution of Exudativory in Primates, 187 Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, A. M. Burrows and L. T. Nash, Eds., pp. 187–210, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  27. J. L. Stevens, S. Mitton, and V. R. Edgerton, “Gross anatomy of hindlimb skeletal muscles of the Galago senegalensis,” Primates, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 83–101, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. J. Cabin and R. J. Mitchell, “To Bonferroni or not to Bonferroni: when and how are the questions,” Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 246–248, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  29. B. A. Sigmon and D. L. Farslow, “The primate hindlimb,” in Comparative Primate Biology, Volume 1: Systematics, Evolution and Anatomy, D. R. Swindler, Ed., pp. 671–718, AR Liss, New York, NY, USA, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  30. L. R. Godfrey, M. R. Sutherland, P. R. Paine, F. L. Williams, D. S. Boy, and M. Vuillaume-Randriamanantena, “Limb joint surface areas and their ratios in Malagasy lemurs and other mammals,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 97, pp. 11–36, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  31. M. W. Hamrick, “Articular size and curvature as determinants of carpal joint mobility and stability in strepsirhine primates,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 230, no. 2, pp. 113–127, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. B. Ruff, “Long bone articular and diaphyseal structure in old world monkeys and apes. I: locomotor effects,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 305–342, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. Xia, “Editorial: resolution “scaling law” in MRI of articular cartilage,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 363–365, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. R. Carter and G. S. Beaupré, Skeletal Function and Form, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2001.
  35. D. E. Shepherd and B. B. Seedhom, “Thickness of human articular cartilage in joints of the lower limb,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. W. Young, B. A. Patel, and N. J. Stevens, “Body mass distribution and gait mechanics in fat-tailed dwarf lemurs (Cheirogaleus medius) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas),” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 26–40, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. S. Schaefer and L. T. Nash, “Limb growth in captive Galago senegalensis: getting in shape to be an adult,” The American Journal of Primatology, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 103–111, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. A. Nicolson, “Infants, mothers, and other females,” in Primate Societies, B. A. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, and T. T. Struhsaker, Eds., pp. 330–342, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  39. E. M. Derrickson, “Comparative reproductive strategies of altricial and precocial mammals,” Functional Ecology, vol. 6, pp. 57–65, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  40. R. H. Crompton, “Age differences in locomotion of two subtropical Galaginae,” Primates, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 241–259, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus