Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Anesthesiology Research and Practice
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 241307, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/241307
Review Article

Preoperative Assessment of Adult Patients for Intracranial Surgery

Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5T 2S8

Received 13 October 2009; Revised 27 January 2010; Accepted 4 March 2010

Academic Editor: Sibylle Kozek-Langenecker

Copyright © 2010 Vanitha Sivanaser and Pirjo Manninen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Schiavi, A. Papangelou, and M. Mirski, “Preoperative preparation of the surgical patient with neurologic disease,” Medical Clinics of North America, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 1123–1130, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. A. Fleisher, J. A. Beckman, K. A. Brown et al., “ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and care for noncardiac surgery: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery) Developed in Collaboration With the American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, and Society for Vascular Surgery,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 50, no. 17, pp. 1707–1732, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. K. Lindenauer, P. Pekow, K. Wang, D. K. Mamidi, B. Gutierrez, and E. M. Benjamin, “Perioperative beta-blocker therapy and mortality after major noncardiac surgery,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 4, pp. 349–361, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. Yang, K. Raymer, R. Butler, J. Parlow, and R. Roberts, “The effects of perioperative β-blockade: results of the Metoprolol after Vascular Surgery (MaVS) study, a randomized controlled trial,” American Heart Journal, vol. 152, no. 5, pp. 983–990, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. W. S. Beattie, D. N. Wijeysundera, K. Karkouti et al., “Acute surgical anemia influences the cardioprotective effects of ß-blockade: a single-center, propensity-matched cohort study,” Anesthesiology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. P. Devereaux et al., “Effects of extended-release metoprolol succinate in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery (POISE trial): a randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9627, pp. 1839–1847, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  7. L. A. Fleisher, J. A. Beckman, K. A. Brown et al., “2009 ACCF/AHA focused update on perioperative beta blockade incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and care for noncardiac surgery,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 22, pp. e13–e118, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Shinton and G. Beevers, “Meta-analysis of relation between cigarette smoking and stroke,” British Medical Journal, vol. 298, no. 6676, pp. 789–794, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Goldman, D. L. Caldera, and S. R. Nussbaum, “Multifactorial index of cardiac risk in noncardiac surgical procedures,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 297, no. 16, pp. 845–850, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. J. Bentz, “ACP Journal Club. Review: nicotine gum and varenicline, but not behavioral interventions, reduce relapse in persons who have stopped smoking,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. JC1–JC11, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. A. Quraishi, F. K. Orkin, and M. F. Roizen, “The anesthesia preoperative assessment: an opportunity for smoking cessation intervention,” Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 635–640, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. A. Chung, H. Yuan, and F. Chung, “A systemic review of obstructive sleep apnea and its implications for anesthesiologists,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 1543–1563, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. Chung, B. Yegneswaran, P. Liao et al., “STOP questionnaire: a tool to screen patients for obstructive sleep apnea,” Anesthesiology, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 812–821, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. J. McGirt, G. F. Woodworth, B. S. Brooke et al., “Hyperglycemia independently increases the risk of perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, and death after carotid endarterectomy,” Neurosurgery, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 1066–1072, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. S. Krinsley, “Effect of an intensive glucose management protocol on the mortality of critically Ill adult patients,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 992–1000, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. J. McGirt, G. F. Woodworth, A. L. Coon et al., “Independent predictors of morbidity after image-guided stereotactic brain biopsy: a risk assessment of 270 cases,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 897–901, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Tommasino, “Fluids and the neurosurgical patient,” Anesthesiology Clinics of North America, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 329–346, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. S. Prough, J. C. Johnson, and G. V. Poole Jr., “Effects on intracranial pressure of resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock with hypertonic saline versus lactated Ringer's solution,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 407–411, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Hockey, K. Leslie, and D. Williams, “Dexamethasone for intracranial neurosurgery and anaesthesia,” Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1389–1393, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. B. Lukins and P. H. Manninen, “Hyperglycemia in patients administered dexamethasone for craniotomy,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1129–1133, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. S. Dunn, A. C. Spyropoulos, and A. G. G. Turpie, “Bridging therapy in patients on long-term oral anticoagulants who require surgery: the Prospective Peri-operative Enoxaparin Cohort Trial (PROSPECT),” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 2211–2218, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. V. Llau, C. Lopez-Forte, L. Sapena, and R. Ferrandis, “Perioperative management of antiplatelet agents in noncardiac surgery,” European Journal of Anaesthesiology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 181–187, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Thachil, A. Gatt, and V. Martlew, “Management of surgical patients receiving anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 1437–1448, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Perks, S. Chakravarti, and P. Manninen, “Preoperative anxiety in neurosurgical patients,” Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 127–130, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Korttila, L. Tarkkanen, and T. Kuurne, “Unpredictable central nervous system effects after lorazepam premedication for neurosurgery,” Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 213–216, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Matis and T. Birbilis, “The Glasgow Coma Scale—a brief review. Past, present, future,” Acta Neurologica Belgica, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 75–89, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. D. Stoneham and J. P. Thompson, “Arterial pressure management and carotid endarterectomy,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 442–452, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. S. Jellish, “Anesthetic issues and perioperative blood pressure management in patients who have cerebrovascular diseases undergoing surgical procedures,” Neurologic Clinics, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 647–659, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. A. Lang and W. H. Rosenblatt, “The airway approach algorithm: practical airway assessment,” Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, vol. 17, no. 5, p. 404, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Z. H. Khan, M. Mohammadi, M. R. Rasouli, F. Farrokhnia, and R. H. Khan, “The diagnostic value of the upper lip bite test combined with sternomental distance, thyromental distance, and interincisor distance for prediction of easy laryngoscopy and intubation: a prospective study,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 822–824, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  31. T. Heidegger, H. J. Gerig, B. Ulrich, and T. W. Schnider, “Structure and process quality illustrated by fibreoptic intubation: analysis of 1612 cases,” Anaesthesia, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 734–739, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. R. Pasternak, J. F. Arens, R. A. Caplan et al., “Practice advisory for preanesthesia evaluation: a report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Preanesthesia Evaluation,” Anesthesiology, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 485–496, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. M. Faris, R. K. Spence, K. M. Larholt, A. R. Sampson, and D. Frei, “The predictive power of baseline hemoglobin for transfusion risk in surgery patients,” Orthopedics, vol. 22, no. 1, supplement, pp. s135–s140, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. W. Smetana and D. S. Macpherson, “The case against routine preoperative laboratory testing,” Medical Clinics of North America, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 7–40, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Carrabba, L. Venkatraghavan, and M. Bernstein, “Day surgery awake craniotomy for removing brain tumours: technical note describing a simple protocol,” Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 208–210, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. McClelland and D. M. Long, “Genesis of the use of corticosteroids in the treatment and prevention of brain edema,” Neurosurgery, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 965–967, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Sarang and J. Dinsmore, “Anaesthesia for awake craniotomy—evolution of a technique that facilitates awake neurological testing,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 161–165, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. J. Blanshard et al., “Awake craniotomy for removal of intracranial tumor: considerations for early discharge,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 89–94, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  39. V. Bonhomme, C. Franssen, and P. Hans, “Awake craniotomy,” European Journal of Anaesthesiology, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 906–912, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  40. E. C. Nemergut, A. S. Dumont, U. T. Barry, and E. R. Laws, “Perioperative management of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 1170–1181, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. G. Piper, B. A. Dirks, V. C. Traynelis, J. C. VanGilder, A. M. Landolt, and R. Fahlbusch, “Perioperative management and surgical outcome of the acromegalic patient with sleep apnea,” Neurosurgery, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 70–75, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Colao, P. Marzullo, C. Di Somma, and G. Lombardi, “Growth hormone and the heart,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 137–154, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Schmitt, M. Buchfelder, M. Radespiel-Tröger, and R. Fahlbusch, “Difficult intubation in acromegalic patients: incidence and predictability,” Anesthesiology, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 110–114, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. Juvin, E. Lavaut, H. Dupont et al., “Difficult tracheal intubation is more common in obese than in lean patients,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 595–600, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. L. Vance, “Perioperative management of patients undergoing pituitary surgery,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 355–365, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W. J. Inder and P. J. Hunt, “Glucocorticoid replacement in pituitary surgery: guidelines for perioperative assessment and management,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 2745–2750, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Black, D. B. Ockert, W. C. Oliver Jr., and R. F. Cucchiara, “Outcome following posterior fossa craniectomy in patients in the sitting or horizontal positions,” Anesthesiology, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. P. Pandia, P. K. Bithal, and D. Sharma, “Anaesthesia for neurosurgery in sitting position,” Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 399–400, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A.-R. Fathi, P. Eshtehardi, and B. Meier, “Patent foramen ovale and neurosurgery in sitting position: a systematic review,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 588–596, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. M. Porter, C. Pidgeon, and A. J. Cunningham, “The sitting position in neurosurgery: a critical appraisal,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 117–128, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. A. Mirski, A. V. Lele, L. Fitzsimmons, and T. J. K. Toung, “Diagnosis and treatment of vascular air embolism,” Anesthesiology, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 164–177, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H.-J. Priebe, “Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and the anaesthetist,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 102–118, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. K. R. Davies, A. W. Gelb, P. H. Manninen, D. R. Boughner, and D. Bisnaire, “Cardiac function in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a study of electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 58–63, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  54. L. A. Coghlan, B. J. Hindman, E. O. Bayman et al., “Independent associations between electrocardiographic abnormalities and outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: findings from the intraoperative hypothermia aneurysm surgery trial,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 412–418, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. Deibert, B. Barzilai, A. C. Braverman et al., “Clinical significance of elevated troponin I levels in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 741–746, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. Muroi, M. Keller, A. Pangalu, M. Fortunati, Y. Yonekawa, and E. Keller, “Neurogenic pulmonary edema in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 188–192, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Schubert, “Cardiovascular therapy of neurosurgical patients,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 483–496, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. J. Howell, “Carotid endarterectomy,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 119–131, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. R. J. Adams, M. I. Chimowitz, J. S. Alpert et al., “Coronary risk evaluation in patients with transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the stroke council and the council on clinical cardiology of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 10, pp. 1278–1290, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. C. McCrory, L. B. Goldstein, G. P. Samsa et al., “Predicting complications of carotid endarterectomy,” Stroke, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1285–1291, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. R. Mayberg, S. E. Wilson, F. Yatsu et al., “Carotid endarterectomy and prevention of cerebral ischemia in symptomatic carotid stenosis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 266, no. 23, pp. 3289–3294, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. B. Zwissler, “Preoperative evaluation of cardiac risk patients for non-cardiac surgery: new guidelines of the ACC/AHA 2007,” Anaesthesist, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 717–719, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Paciaroni, M. Eliasziw, L. J. Kappelle, J. W. Finan, G. G. Ferguson, and H. J. M. Barnett, “Medical complications associated with carotid endarterectomy,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1759–1763, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Mazighi, J. Labreuche, and P. Amarenco, “Glucose level and brain infarction: a prospective case & control study and prospective study,” International Journal of Stroke, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 346–351, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. E. Ballotta, G. Da Giau, and L. Renon, “Is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for carotid endarterectomy? A prospective study,” Surgery, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 146–152, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. R. Naylor, P. M. Rothwell, and P. R. F. Bell, “Overview of the principal results and secondary analyses from the European and North American randomised trials endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 115–129, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Engelter and P. Lyrer, “Antiplatelet therapy for preventing stroke and other vascular events after carotid endarterectomy,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD001458, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  68. S. C. Brown and A. M. Lam, “Moyamoya disease—a review of clinical experience and anaesthetic management,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 71–75, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. A. Malley and E. A. M. Frost, “Moyamoya disease: pathophysiology and anesthetic management,” Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 110–114, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. W. L. Young, “Anesthesia for endovascular neurosurgery and interventional neuroradiology,” Anesthesiology Clinics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 391–412, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. W. Murphy, B. J. Barrett, and P. S. Parfrey, “Contrast nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 177–182, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. Goldberg, “Systemic reactions to intravascular contrast media. A guide for the anesthesiologist,” Anesthesiology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 46–56, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. Molyneux, R. Kerr, I. Stratton et al., “International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9342, pp. 1267–1274, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. J. Furlan, “Carotid-artery stenting—case open or closed?” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355, no. 16, pp. 1726–1729, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. Derbent, I. Oran, M. Parildar, T. Yurtseven, M. Uyar, and A. Memiş, “Adverse effects of anesthesia in interventional radiology,” Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 109–112, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. Howell, Z. Krajcer, K. Dougherty et al., “Correlation of periprocedural systolic blood pressure changes with neurological events in high-risk carotid stent patients,” Journal of Endovascular Therapy, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 810–816, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. C. M. Poon and M. G. Irwin, “Anaesthesia for deep brain stimulation and in patients with implanted neurostimulator devices,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 152–165, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. L. Venkatraghavan, P. Manninen, P. Mak, K. Lukitto, M. Hodaie, and A. Lozano, “Anesthesia for functional neurosurgery: review of complications,” Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 64–67, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. A. Burton, G. Nicholson, and G. M. Hall, “Anaesthesia in elderly patients with neurodegenerative disorders: special considerations,” Drugs and Aging, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 229–242, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. W. A. Kofke, R. Tempelhoff, and R. M. Dasheiff, “Anesthetic implications of epilepsy, status epilepticus, and epilepsy surgery,” Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 349–372, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. K. M. Erickson and D. J. Cole, “Anesthetic considerations for awake craniotomy for epilepsy,” Anesthesiology Clinics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 535–555, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus