Efficacy of High-Voltage Pulsed Radiofrequency in Zoster-Associated Pain: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic ReviewRead the full article
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Impact of Melatonin as a Premedication Agent in Caesarean Section on Blood Loss and Postoperative Pain Level
Background. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a serious postdelivery condition with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality for women who undergo childbirth with or without a caesarean section. Melatonin has been suggested to increase the contractility of myometrium and reduce the pain score postoperatively, therefore it is believed that the use of melatonin before surgery may decrease blood loss, reduce pain score, and decrease the need for postoperative opioids. Objectives. The main objectives of this study are focused on the investigation of melatonin as a premedication agent to reduce blood loss and decrease pain score postoperatively in patients undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Methods. 80 patients were scheduled for spinal anesthesia-based cesarean sections and randomly assigned to two groups, melatonin group (M) 40 patients and placebo group (P) 40 patients to receive either 10 mg of sublingual melatonin or a placebo of 90 minutes preoperatively. Hemoglobin levels were been measured preoperative and 12 hrs. Postoperatively, blood loss volume was calculated by measuring both the weight of used materials before and after the surgery and the volume sucked in the suction bottle after placental delivery. Postoperative visual pain score and analgesic requirements were used to evaluate pain levels. Results. Analyzed collected data showed a significant decrease in blood loss in the melatonin group in comparison with the placebo group as measured by the hemoglobin level. On the other hand, there is a significant decrease in pain score and analgesia requirement with the melatonin group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion. Melatonin is a promising premedication drug that has a significant impact on postpartum hemorrhage by reducing blood loss and pain levels of mothers who have undergone C-sections.
Outcomes of Women with Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Admitted in the Intensive Care Unit at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mogadishu, Somalia
Intensive care for a hypertensive mother with preeclampsia or eclampsia is crucial for both maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study highlights the level of morbidity and mortality among women with preeclampsia and eclampsia admitted to the intensive care unit. Methods. This retrospective study was conducted in Mogadishu, Somalia, at the Mogadishu Somali Türkiye Training and Research Hospital from February 2019 to July 2022. The study focused on the different complications, managements, and final outcomes of preeclampsia and eclampsia mothers admitted to the intensive care unit. The data was retrieved from the electronic records of patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Results. During our study period, a total of 237 patients were identified as having preeclampsia/eclampsia, of whom 71 required intensive care admission. The mean age of the studied patients was 25 ± 6 years. The most common reason for being taken to the intensive care unit (ICU) was having a seizure (n = 33, 46.5%), followed by having very high blood pressure (n = 20, 28.2%), and being confused (n = 18, 25.3%). Peripartum infection was the most common maternal complication during ICU admission (66.7%), followed by cardiac-related arrhythmia (66.7%), postpartum bleeding (48%), acute kidney injury (18.4%), HELLP syndrome (16.4%), severe anemia (9.6%), and stroke (8.7%). Among patients, 65 (91.5%) needed mechanical ventilation. About 11.1% of these patients died during hospitalization. There were associations between mortality and some complications, particularly acute kidney injury value less than 0.02) and peripartum infection ( value less than 0.003). Conclusion. Hypertensive disease of pregnancy (preeclampsia/eclampsia) requiring intensive care unit admission has a very high morbidity and mortality rate.
Effect of Local Ketamine Subcutaneous Injection at the Incision Site in Reducing the Postoperative Pain Score after Transabdominal Hysterectomy
Background. Pain control after operations is essential in decreasing the patient recovery period and potential morbidity. Prescribing opiates is very effective, but significant side effects accompany them. This study aims to examine the effect of local ketamine infiltration in decreasing pain intensity in patients undergoing transabdominal hysterectomy. Methods. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, a total of 92 patients undergoing transabdominal hysterectomy aged 30–60 years were selected and divided into two intervention and control groups randomly. For the intervention group, ketamine was injected subcutaneously into the incision site at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg after the operation. In the control group, 5 mg normal saline was used in the same method. Postoperative pain intensity was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS: 0–10). The pain score and dose of administered opioids were documented at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours and compared between the two groups. Results. Postoperative pain intensity was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group, except for hour 24. The mean amounts of administered opioids were significantly lower in the intervention group at hours 6 and 12, as well as the total amount of used opioids, and no significant side effects were documented. Conclusion. Local ketamine subcutaneous injection in the incisional site is effective and is a safe procedure for reducing pain scores in patients who underwent a transabdominal hysterectomy.
Evidence-Based Guideline on the Prevention and Management of Perioperative Pain for Breast Cancer Peoples in a Low-Resource Setting: A Systematic Review Article
Background. Breast surgery for breast cancer is associated with significant acute and persistent postoperative pain. Surgery is the primary type of treatment, but up to 60% of breast cancer patients experience persistent pain after surgery, and 40% of them develop acute postmastectomy pain syndrome. Preoperative stress, involvement of lymph nodes while dissecting, and the postoperative psychological state of the patients play vital roles in managing the postoperative pain of the patients. The objective of this study is to develop evidence-based guideline on the prevention and management of perioperative pain for breast cancer surgical patients. Methods. An exhaustive literature search was made from PubMed, Cochrane Review, PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, and CINAHIL databases that are published from 2012 to 2022 by setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After data extraction, filtering was made based on the methodological quality, population data, interventions, and outcome of interest. Finally, one guideline, two meta-analyses, ten systematic reviews, 25 randomized clinical trials and ten observational studies are included in this review, and a conclusion was made based on their level of evidence and grade of recommendation. Results. A total of 38 studies were considered in this evaluation. The development of this guideline was based on different studies performed on the diagnosis, risk stratification and risk reduction, prevention of postoperative pain, and treatments of postoperative pain. Conclusion. The management of postoperative pain can be categorized as risk assessment, minimizing risk, early diagnosis, and treatment. Early diagnosis is the mainstay to identify and initiate treatment. The perioperative use of a nonpharmacological approach (including preoperative positive inspirational words and positive expectation) as an adjunct to the intraoperative regional anesthetic technique with general anesthesia with proper dosage of the standard pharmacological multimodal regimens is the first-line treatment. For postoperative analgesia, an extended form of intraoperative regional technique, nonpharmacologic technique, and NSAIDs can be used with the opioid-sparing anesthesia technique.
Assessment of the Safety and Efficiency of a Preperitoneal Continuous Infusion Using Bupivacaine after Abdominal Laparotomy in Digestive Carcinology
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of continuous preperitoneal wound infiltration using bupivacaine after abdominal laparotomy in relation to plasma bupivacaine concentration and visual analog scale. Our study was performed on 60 adult patients with digestive cancer, operated at laparotomy, and randomized into two groups: bupivacaine and saline groups. The wound infiltration was through a multiperforated catheter along the scar. For the bupivacaine group, 0.25% bupivacaine was used; however, for the saline group, only saline (0.9%) was infiltrated. The pain was assessed by using the visual analog scale (VAS) in both groups. Plasma bupivacaine concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The bupivacaine group had significantly lower postoperative morphine consumption and lower postoperative pain than the saline group ( < 0.0001). The majority of patients in the bupivacaine group had significant relief with the VAS scores of less than 3/10 cm at rest and 6/10 cm on mobilization. However, for the saline group, the VAS scores were higher than 6/10 cm either at rest or with mobilization. There was no clinical sign of toxicity and no technical complications for the bupivacaine group. Only eleven patients required morphine in this group, but the majority of patients received morphine at different doses in the saline group. Plasma bupivacaine was at very low concentrations. Overall, the current study has confirmed that continuous preperitoneal wound infiltration as postoperative analgesia is a simple, effective, and safe technique. It allows decreasing of morphine consumption and subsequently canceling their side effects.
Relationship between Nontraumatic Shoulder Disorders and Neuropathic Pain: Retrospective Observational Analyses of Clinical Features and Background Factors
Background. Accurate identification of neuropathic pain is necessary for appropriate treatment; however, the relationship between nontraumatic shoulder disorders and neuropathic pain remains unknown. Therefore, this retrospective observational study aimed to investigate the relationship, features, background factors, and prevalence of neuropathic pain among patients with nontraumatic shoulder disorders. Methods. We evaluated 198 patients who visited our outpatient clinic, which specializes in shoulder disorders, from April 2015 to March 2016. The patients’ age, sex, affected side, diagnosis, and pain duration were recorded, and the results of physical examination, including passive range of motion, impingement sign, and muscular strength assessments, were analyzed. The presence of neuropathic pain was assessed using the painDETECT questionnaire. Participants were divided into two groups according to the presence of neuropathic pain. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale, and the patient’s mental status was assessed using the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The scores were compared between the groups. Results. Neuropathic pain was observed in 7.6% of patients. The visual analog scale score for pain, short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire score, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score were significantly associated with the presence of neuropathic pain in the univariate analysis. Patient background factors and physical function were not associated with the presence of neuropathic pain. The prevalence of neuropathic pain in patients with frozen shoulder was 33.3%, which was significantly higher than that in patients with other shoulder disorders. Conclusion. The occurrence of neuropathic pain may aggravate pain in patients with nontraumatic shoulder disorders. Neuropathic pain was not a rare condition in patients with nontraumatic shoulder disorders, particularly in those with frozen shoulder. The coexistence of neuropathic pain cannot be determined from background factors or physical function. Accurate diagnosis of neuropathic pain is essential in patients with nontraumatic shoulder disorders.