A Randomized Controlled Trial: Comparison of 4% Articaine versus 0.5% Bupivacaine for Ambulatory Orthopedic Surgery under Supraclavicular BlockRead the full article
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Undesirable Postoperative Anesthesia Outcomes at Two National Referral Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study in Eritrea
Background. Postoperative undesirable anesthesia outcomes are common among patients undergoing surgery. They may affect body systems and lead into more serious postoperative problems. This research is conducted in the Eritrean National Referral Hospitals with the aim of assessing the prevalence of undesirable anesthesia outcomes during the postoperative period. Method. A cross-sectional study design was applied on 470 patients who underwent different types of surgeries within a three-month period. Patients were interviewed 24 hours after operation (POD 1) using the Leiden Perioperative care Patient Satisfaction questionnaire (LPPSq). This study reports one component of a large study conducted. The dimension “Discomfort and needs” of the LPPSq was considered, and the measurements of that dimension are presented in this report. Items of the dimension were standardized and measured using a five-point Likert scale from “Not at all” to “Extremely.” Multivariable logistic regression was used to look for the association of the outcomes with the types of surgery and types of anesthesia using SPSS (Version 22). Results. The prevalence were computed in two manners, prevalence of those with ‘at least a little bit’ outcomes, which was computed to see the total occurrence of these outcomes, and prevalence of those having ‘more than moderate’ outcomes to see the severe experience of these outcomes. Prevalence of the predominant undesirable outcome, postoperative pain, for ‘at least a little bit’ and ‘more than moderate’ were 82.6% and 43.6%, respectively. The rest of the postoperative undesirable outcomes were less frequently reported. Conclusion. Postoperative pain was found to be the most prevalent undesirable outcome. Enhancement of proper assessment and management of postoperative pain through the development and implementation of specific pain management modalities is needed.
An In Vitro Pilot Study Comparing the Novel HemoClear Gravity-Driven Microfiltration Cell Salvage System with the Conventional Centrifugal XTRA™ Autotransfusion Device
Background. In 2013, the World Health Organization reported a shortage of 17 million red blood cell units, a number that remains growing. Acts to relieve this shortage have primarily focused on allogeneic blood collection. Nevertheless, autologous transfusion can partially alleviate the current pressure and dependence on blood banking systems. To achieve this, current gold standard autotransfusion devices should be complemented with widely available, cost-efficient, and time-efficient devices. The novel HemoClear cell salvage device (HemoClear BV, Zwolle, Netherlands), a gravity-driven microfilter, potentially is widely employable. We evaluated its performance in the cardiac postoperative setting compared to the centrifugal XTRA™ autotransfusion device. Methods. In a split-unit study (n = 18), shed blood collected 18 hours after cardiothoracic surgery was divided into two equal volumes. One-half was processed by the XTRA™ device and the other with the HemoClear blood separation system. In this paired set-up, equal washing volumes were used for both methods. Washing effectivity and cellular recovery were determined by measuring of complete blood count, free hemoglobin, complement C3, complement C4, and D-dimer in both concentrate as filtrate. Also, processing times and volumes were evaluated. Results. The HemoClear and XTRA™ devices showed equal effectiveness in concentrating erythrocytes and leucocytes. Both methods reduced complement C3, complement C4, and D-dimer by ≥90%. The centrifugal device reduced solutes more significantly by up to 99%. Free hemoglobin load was reduced to 12.9% and 15.5% by the XTRA™ and HemoClear, respectively. Conclusion. The HemoClear device effectively produced washed concentrated red blood cells comparably to the conventional centrifugal XTRA™ autotransfusion device. Although the centrifugal XTRA™ device achieved a significantly higher reduction in contaminants, the HemoClear device achieved acceptable blood quality and seems promising in settings where gold standard cell savers are unaffordable or unpractical.
Effectiveness of Propofol versus Dexamethasone for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Ear, Nose, and Throat Surgery in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital and Yekatit 12th Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remain as common and unpleasant and highly distressful experience following ear, nose, and throat surgery. During ENT surgery, the incidence of PONV could be significantly reduced in patients who receive dexamethasone and propofol as prophylaxis. However, the comparative effectiveness of the two drugs has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of propofol and dexamethasone for prevention of PONV in ear, nose, and throat surgery. Methods. This study was conducted in 80 patients, with ASA I and II, aged 18–65 years, and scheduled for ENT surgery between December 20, 2017, and March 20, 2018. Patients were randomly assigned to Group A and Group B. Immediately after the procedure, Group A patients received single dose of intravenous (IV) dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) and Group B patients were given propofol (0.5 mg/kg, IV), and equal follow-up was employed. The incidence of PONV was noted at 6th, 12th, and 24th hour of drug administration. Independent t-test and Mann–Whitney test were used for comparison of symmetric numerical and asymmetric data between groups, respectively. Categorical data were analyzed with the chi-square test, and value of < 0.05 was considered as level of significance. Results. The incidences of PONV throughout the 24-hour postoperative period were 35% in the propofol group and 25% in the dexamethasone group. Statistical significance was found in incidence of PONV (0% versus 22.5%) and use of antiemetic (0% versus 5%) between dexamethasone and propofol groups, respectively, at 12–24 hours. Over 24 hours, 5% in dexamethasone group and 12.5% in propofol group developed moderate PONV, while none of the participants felt severe PONV. Conclusions. Dexamethasone was more effective than propofol to prevent PONV with lower requirements of rescue antiemetics.
Effectiveness of Leg Elevation to Prevent Spinal Anesthesia-Induced Hypotension during Cesarean Delivery in the Resource-Limited Area: Open Randomized Controlled Trial
Background. Postspinal hypotension is the most common complication after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section (CS). Hypotension mainly occurs due to the reductions of vascular tone leading to decreased systemic vascular resistance and decreased venous return. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of leg elevation (LE) as a method of prevention of postspinal hypotension in patients who undergo cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Methods. This is a single-center parallel-randomized controlled trial study, and 52 full-term parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section who meets inclusion criteria were included in the study. The randomization sequence was created by a researcher not participating in patient management using a computer random generator. The participant was randomly assigned to the leg elevation group (n = 26) or to the control group (n = 26) of usual perioperative care. Results. The proportions of patients who develop hypotension are lower (8 (33.3%)) in the leg elevation group than the control group (15 (62.5%)) with an X2 (1, N = 48) = 4.09, . The relative risk of developing postspinal hypotension in the leg elevation group compared to the control group was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.28–1.00). The proportion of severe hypotension was significantly decreased in the leg elevation group at a value of 0.02. Conclusion. Performing leg elevation immediately after spinal anesthesia reduced the incidence of hypotension. The trial is registered with PACTR201908713181850.
Relationship between Abdominal Circumference and Incidence of Hypotension during Cesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesia
Background. Enlarged uterus can compress the inferior vena cava and cause hypotension when lying supine. Previous studies have shown a positive association between the abdominal circumference and size of the uterus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between abdominal circumference and incidence of hypotension during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Methods. The study cohort comprised women undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups according to the median abdominal circumference (<101 cm and ≥101 cm). Hypotension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of <90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure of <65 mmHg. The primary outcome of this study was the relationship between the incidence of hypotension and the abdominal circumference after spinal anesthesia in term pregnant women. Results. The study cohort comprised 100 women. The incidence of hypotension did not differ between the groups (71.42% in the smaller vs. 78.43% in the larger abdominal circumference group, ). However, the decrease in mean arterial pressure and its percentage decrease from baseline were greater in the larger than in the smaller abdominal circumference group (change in mean arterial pressure: 28.33 mmHg (18.66–33.67) in the smaller vs. 36.67 mmHg (23.34–43.34) in the larger abdominal circumference group, ; percentage decrease: 31.41% (22.74–39.22) in the smaller vs. 38.47% (28.00–44.81) in the larger abdominal circumference group, ). Conclusions. Large abdominal circumference in pregnancy is associated with greater decreases in mean arterial pressure from baseline. However, the incidence of hypotension defined by standard criteria did not differ between larger and smaller abdominal circumference groups.
Incidence, Outcomes, and Factors Associated with Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Primary Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Abdominopelvic Injury Patients
Background. The primary aim was to identify the incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and primary abdominal compartment syndrome (1oACS) of abdominopelvic injury patients at Thammasat University Hospital (TUH), Thailand, and the secondary objective was to evaluate those factors that contributed to developing these conditions. Methods. The retrospective cohort of 38 abdominopelvic injury cases was admitted to the intensive care unit at Thammasat University Hospital, from January 1st to December 31st, 2018. The bladder pressure was recorded every 4 hours until the urethral catheter was removed. Data of age, gender, weight, height, body mass index, injury mechanisms, initial vital signs, imaging, laboratory data, blood component requirements, abdominal organs involved, treatments including surgery and intervention radiology, abbreviated injury scale (AIS) and injury severity score (ISS), length of ICU stays, and results of treatment were all analyzed. Results. The patients were mostly young (mean age 31.5 years), male (68.4%), and suffering from blunt trauma (89.5%). The mean maximum bladder pressure was 8.3 ± 5.2 mmHg. Six patients (15.8%) developed IAH, and one patient (2.6%) was diagnosed with 1oACS. Two patients expired. The multivariate analysis showed the patient who had initial Cr ≥ 1.5 g/dL, lower extremity including pelvis AIS ≥3, and ISS >15 was significantly associated with the developing of IAH. Conclusions. The incidence of IAH and 1oACS was 15.8% and 2.6%. Predicted factors to find developing IAH were initial Cr ≥ 1.5 g/dL, lower extremity AIS ≥3, and ISS >15. We should consider awareness of IAH and 1oACS in abdominopelvic injury patients.