The Current Consideration, Approach, and Management in Postcesarean Delivery Pain Control: A Narrative ReviewRead the full article
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Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants among Nurse Anesthetists in Clinical Practice: The Botswana Experience
Job satisfaction (JS) correlates positively with patients’ satisfaction and outcomes and employees’ well-being. In Botswana, the level of job satisfaction and its determinants among nurse anesthetists were not investigated. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2020 to June 2020 encompassing all nurse anesthetists in clinical practice in Botswana. A self-administered questionnaire was used that incorporated demographic data, reasons to stay on or leave their job, and a validated 20-item short form of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which was pretested on five of our nurse anesthetists. Percentage is used to describe the data. The independence of categorical variables was examined using chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. In Botswana, a total of 76 nurse anesthetists were in clinical practice during the study period. Sixty-six (86.9%) responded to the survey. Gender distribution was even, 50.0%. The overall JS was 36.4%. Males had significantly higher JS than females, . Significantly higher job satisfaction was found in married nurse anesthetists (), expatriate nurse anesthetists (), nurse anesthetists in non-referral hospitals (), and nurse anesthetists with ≥10 years’ experience (). Nurse anesthetists were satisfied with security, social service, authority, ability utilization, and responsibility in ≥60.0% of the cases. They were not satisfied in compensation, working condition, and advancement in a similar percentage. The main reason to stay on their job was to serve the public in 68.2%. In Botswana, employers should make an effort to address the working conditions, compensation, and advancement of nurse anesthetists in clinical practice.
Impact of the First Wave of COVID-19 on the Number of General Anesthesia Cases in 34 Tertiary Hospitals in Japan: A Multicenter Retrospective Study
Since the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Japan in January 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a significant change in people’s lives. Although the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have had an impact on the work of anesthesiologists, the specific impact has been largely unreported. We hypothesized that the number of general anesthesia (GA) cases has decreased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a retrospective survey at 34 facilities in Japan as a part of the Japanese Epidemiologic Study for Perioperative Anaphylaxis. The results showed that the number of GA cases had significantly decreased, particularly in May 2020, under the government’s declaration of a state of emergency. The decline in GA caseload had not fully recovered by July 2020. Furthermore, there were regional differences in the decline in the number of GA cases. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work of anesthesiologists was greater in prefectures where there were more COVID-19 patients and where the state of emergency was declared earlier. Our study suggested a region-dependent decrease in the number of GA cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Acute Pain Burden and Opioid Dose Requirements after Cesarean Delivery in Parturients with Preexisting Chronic Back Pain and Migraine
Introduction. Preexisting chronic pain has been reported to be a consistent risk factor for severe acute postoperative pain. However, each specific chronic pain condition has unique pathophysiology, and it is possible that the effect of each condition on postoperative pain is different. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with preexisting chronic pain conditions (i.e., migraine, chronic back pain, and the combination of migraine + chronic back pain), who underwent cesarean delivery. The effects of the three chronic pain conditions on time-weighted average (TWA) pain score (primary outcome) and opioid dose requirements in morphine milligram equivalents (MME) during postoperative 48 hours were compared. Results. The TWA pain score was similar in preexisting migraine and chronic back pain. Chronic back pain was associated with significantly greater opioid dose requirements than migraine (12.92 MME, 95% CI: 0.41 to 25.43, ). Preoperative opioid use () was associated with a greater TWA pain score. Preoperative opioid use (), smoking (), and lower postoperative ibuprofen dose () were associated with greater opioid dose requirements. Conclusions. Findings suggest women with chronic back pain and migraine do not report different postpartum pain intensities; however, women with preexisting chronic back pain required 13 MME greater opioid dose than those with migraine during 48 hours after cesarean delivery.
Low-Dose Ketamine Infusion for Perioperative Pain Management in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial
Introduction. Obesity is a common comorbidity seen in the perioperative setting and is associated with many diseases including cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold standard surgical treatment for patients whose weight is refractory to diet and exercise. Caring for these patients perioperatively presents unique challenges to anesthesiologists and is associated with an increased risk of adverse respiratory events. In our study, we hypothesize that a low-dose perioperative ketamine infusion will reduce opioid consumption and improve analgesia when compared to standard therapy. Methods. This is a single-center, prospective randomized controlled study enrolling 35 patients in total. Patients were randomized equally into the ketamine and control group. Preop, intraop, and postop management regimens were standardized. The ketamine group received a 0.3 mg/kg ideal body weight ketamine bolus after induction followed by a 0.2 mg/kg/hr ketamine infusion continued into the postop setting for up to 24 hours. Data collected included total perioperative opioids used converted to oral morphine equivalents (ME), pain scores, side effects, hospital length of stay, and patient satisfaction captured via postoperative questionnaires. Results. The use of perioperative opioid consumption was significantly lower in the ketamine group when compared with the control group (179.9 ME versus 248.7 ME, ). There was no statistically significant difference in pain scores or hospital length of stay postoperatively between the two groups. There were also no reported adverse respiratory events, prolonged sedation, agitation, or other side effects reported in either group. The patient satisfaction questionnaires showed a significant difference with the ketamine group reporting lower maximum pain scores, a decrease in how pain limited activities of daily living once discharged, and increased hospital pain management satisfaction scores. Conclusions. Perioperative low-dose ketamine infusions significantly reduced opioid consumption in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.
Comparison of Hemodynamic Response following Spinal Anesthesia between Controlled Hypertensive and Normotensive Patients Undergoing Surgery below the Umbilicus: An Observational Prospective Cohort Study
Background. Hypotension and bradycardia are the most common complications associated with spinal anesthesia and more common in patients with a history of hypertension. Regular use of antihypertensive medications can prevent these complications. The occurrence of hypotension under spinal anesthesia among controlled hypertensive and normotensive patients with age 40 years and above is still debated. The objective of the study was to compare blood pressure and heart rate changes following spinal anesthesia between controlled hypertensive and normotensive patients undergoing surgery below the umbilicus at Black lion hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2020. Method. A hospital-based prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 110 elective patients with controlled hypertension (55) and normotensive (55) patients who underwent surgery with spinal anesthesia at black lion hospital during the study period were included. The sample was selected using a systematic random sampling technique. Continuous data of independent and dependent variables were analyzed using an independent sample t-test for normally distributed and Mann–Whitney U-test for nonnormally distributed between the study groups. Categorical variables between the study groups were analyzed using the chi-square test. Descriptive data were displayed using tables and figures. For continuous and categorical variables, a value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The incidence of hypotension in the controlled hypertension group (23.6%) was higher than the normotensive group (7.3%) with value of 0.018. The occurrence of bradycardia was seen to be 12.7% in each group with a value >0.05. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, mean heart rate, and vasopressor consumption at the measurement time interval between controlled hypertension and normotensive groups. Conclusion. Under spinal anesthesia, patients with controlled hypertension are more likely to develop hypotension than normotensive patients, but on the occurrence of bradycardia, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.
Evidence-Based Guideline on Critical Patient Transport and Handover to ICU
The perioperative period is a time in which significant physiological change occurs. Improper transfer of information at this point can lead to medical errors. Planning and preparation for critical patient transport to ICU is vital to prevent adverse events. Critical patient transport to ICU must be as safe as possible and should not cause additional risks. It needs good communication, planning, and appropriate staffing with standard monitoring. Evidence shows inconsistency and variability on the use of standardized protocols during critical patient transfer and handover to the ICU. There is a variety of controversial approaches about the need of sedation, use of end-tidal CO2 monitoring, and manual versus mechanical ventilation based on different evidence. The objective of this review was to recommend safer options of critical patient transfer to the ICU that help reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Methods. Google Scholars, PubMed through HINARI, and other search engines were used to search high-quality evidence that help reach appropriate conclusions. Discussion. Critical patient transfer and handover to ICU is a complex procedure that needs experienced hands, availability of appropriate team members, standard monitoring, and necessary emergency and patient-specific medications. Appropriate and adequate transfer of patient information to the receiving team decreases patient morbidity and mortality when the transfer team uses standardized checklist. Conclusion. Involvement of senior physicians, use of standard monitoring, and appropriate transfer of information have been shown to decrease critical patient morbidity and mortality.