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Anesthesiology Research and Practice
Volume 2011, Article ID 231493, 11 pages
Review Article

Perioperative Intravascular Fluid Assessment and Monitoring: A Narrative Review of Established and Emerging Techniques

1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 757 Westwood Plaza, Suite 2231, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA
2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
3Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3801 Miranda Avenue, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA

Received 14 December 2010; Revised 29 March 2011; Accepted 4 May 2011

Academic Editor: Maurizio Cecconi

Copyright © 2011 Sumit Singh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Accurate assessments of intravascular fluid status are an essential part of perioperative care and necessary in the management of the hemodynamically unstable patient. Goal-directed fluid management can facilitate resuscitation of the hypovolemic patient, reduce the risk of fluid overload, reduce the risk of the injudicious use of vasopressors and inotropes, and improve clinical outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the strengths and limitations of a spectrum of noninvasive and invasive techniques for assessing and monitoring intravascular volume status and fluid responsiveness in the perioperative and critically ill patient.