Clinical Study

Breast Surgery Using Thoracic Paravertebral Blockade and Sedation Alone

Table 2

Indications for TPVB alone and corresponding ages (years). Indications are not mutually exclusive (i.e., individual patients may have more than one).

IndicationAge, mean (range)

Anxiety/patient choice
 Significant anxiety/phobia of GA366.0 (57–84)
 Stated patient choice 658.8 (27–85)
 Pregnancy (27-week gestation)127 (27-27)
 Hypertension1682.8 (58–90)
 Heart failure488.0 (85–89)
 Ischaemic heart disease572.6 (53–90)
 Valvular heart disease474.3 (64–92)
 Stroke/transient ischaemic attack1069.7 (53–89)
 Significant respiratory disease571.2 (64–85)
 Chronic kidney disease679.8 (53–92)
 Spinal abnormalities/difficult airway257.5 (57-58)
 Chronic pain257.0 (57-57)