Hemodynamic trends (x̄, bold black line; σ, gray zone). Cardiac index (a) initially showed a mild hyperdynamic pattern, followed by an increase due to the epidural block, and it remained relatively stable during the surgery, with inferior values at the end when compared with the first ones. The systemic vascular resistance index (b) decreased after the epidural block. However, these fluctuations were maintained with minimal variance despite the bleeding. Mean arterial pressure (c) showed less variation and did not exhibit the changes recorded in the vascular resistance index.