Incidence of Hyperlipidemia among Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), USA, 2007–2021Read the full article
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On-Time Appointment Keeping and Associated Factors among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Adult Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy at Health Centers in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019
Background. The magnitude of on-time appointment keeping among HIV-positive adult patients was not identified in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess on-time appointment keeping and associated factors among human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients accessing antiretroviral therapy in the East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was performed on 830 HIV-positive patients from April 1 to May 10, 2019, in East Gojjam Zone. A systematic random sampling technique was used to include study subjects, and data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed. Independent variables with a value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant cut points. Results. The prevalence of on-time appointment keeping was 62.1%. Being >24 years old (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.54–4.25), being unmarried (AOR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.45–0.82), taking a drug regimen of tenofovir + lamivudine (3TC) + efavirenz (EFV) (AOR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.84–3.62), taking ART ≥12 months (AOR = 4.32; 95% CI = 2.22–8.40), having a mobile (AOR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.44–3.64), and getting adherence support (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.16; 95% 1.16–3.50) were significant factors. Conclusion. On-time appointment keeping was low. Adherence support and appointment reminders should be strengthened.
Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV Attending ART Centers of Lumbini Province, Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Depression is a common mental disorder and is a leading cause of disability globally. Depressive symptoms among people living with HIV can be a significant barrier to ART initiation and thus lead to poor ART adherence. Global studies have found the prevalence of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV ranges from 12 to 63%. The real scenario of Nepal still needs to be explored. Thus, this study aimed to identify the prevalence and predictors of depression in individuals with HIV. Methods. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was carried out from August to December 2020 among 406 people living with HIV attending ART centers in Lumbini province. Participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique and surveyed with a structured questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic variables, HIV AIDS-related variables, and 21 items Beck Depression Inventory tool. The odds ratio was used as the ultimate measure of association, with a 95% confidence interval computed to establish statistical significance. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out to identify the final predictors of depressive symptoms. Results. The study found that 26.8% of the respondents had depressive symptoms. Those who were literate (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10–0.61), in the poorest wealth quintile (AOR = 7.28, 95% CI: 2.22-23.87), initiated ART within 12 months (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.03–3.42), had CD4 cell counts below 200 (AOR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.54–4.06), and had a time difference of 3 months or less between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.29–0.86) were independently associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Routine screening for depressive symptoms should be integrated into national HIV prevention and control programs for people living with HIV. An enabling environment should be created to facilitate the rapid enrollment of individuals newly diagnosed with HIV in ART services, thereby reducing the time gap between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation.
The Effect on Theatre Nurses for Rendering Perioperative Care to Patients Living with HIV in a South African Tertiary Hospital
Purpose. The study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of how theatre nurses are being affected when they render perioperative care to patients living with HIV in a South African tertiary hospital. Background. There is a scarcity of studies that focus solely on the wellbeing of theatre nurses who render perioperative care to HIV patient due to the ramifications of the nurses’ fear of contracting HIV. Patients living with HIV often receive substandard care. Objectives. To establish how theatre nurses are being impacted when rendering perioperative care to patient living with HIV, the study followed a qualitative approach using an interpretative phenomenological analysis design. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews from ten theatre nurses who were purposively selected according to specific criteria. They voluntarily agreed to participate. An interpretive phenomenological analysis framework was used to analyse the data. Two main themes emerged from the data analysis, namely, the negative effect on nurses’ wellbeing and the impact that it had on them professionally. Results. The study revealed that the perioperative care of patients living with HIV had a negative impact on physical, mental, and social wellbeing of theatre nurses. Their compromised wellbeing in turn led to poor patient care, which put nurses at risk of losing their jobs and even potentially having to face litigation. The study further indicated that nurses did not receive psychological support from the management which further affected their health and professional performance. Conclusion. The study proposes that theatre nurses rendering perioperative care to people living with HIV should receive proper training and support; staff shortages should also be addressed. There is also an urgent need for appropriate and sufficient protective equipment. Such changes will be essential in order to mitigate the negative impact that their jobs have on their wellbeing and on them in their professional capacity.
Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among People Living with HIV in Nepal
Introduction. Patient’s knowledge and attitude towards their treatment avert stereotypical misconceptions about the disease and its treatment, as well as aid in attaining optimal adherence. This study investigated the knowledge, attitude, practice, and adherence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) clients in Nepal. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 165 ART clients visiting five ART sites in the far western region and the capital city of Nepal. The convenience sampling method was employed, and the data were collected through interviews with ART clients using a validated questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was used to identify associated factors. Result. Approximately 80.7% had adequate knowledge and 55% had a positive attitude towards ART. Stigmatization was associated with ARV by only 4.2%. Half of the participants (50.3%) revealed that they had surreptitiously stored their ART medication, diverging from the recommended storage guidelines. A significant proportion of respondents (33.3%) chose to repackage the medication as a strategy to prevent unintended disclosure of their HIV status. Many (59.3%) believed that ART does not prolong life. Nevertheless, they advocated the regular use of ART rather than taking it only when the health deteriorates (81.8%). The majority (97.6%) were found to be adherent to their ART. There was a significant association of age with a level of knowledge and attitude (). A significant association was also found between knowledge and attitude towards ART (). None of the variables had a significant association with adherence (). Conclusion. Overall, adequate knowledge was demonstrated, whereas efforts are still needed to improve the attitude of ART clients towards ART. A need for counseling regarding the storage practices of ART is needed. A focus on ensuring the perfect translation of adequate knowledge and a positive attitude to the practice of ART clients is essential. Whether adequate ART knowledge and attitude scores will lead to near-perfect ART adherence needs further investigation.
Poor Sleep Quality and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV/AIDS Attending ART Clinic at Tirunesh Beijing Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background. Sleep is a universal need of all higher life forms, including humans. However, sleep problems are one of the most common problems raised by patients living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Poor sleep quality is one of the hidden and unrecognized factors contributing to poor medication adherence and functional inactivity among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2022, to May 30, 2022, at an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic of Tirunesh Beijing Hospital. A systematic sampling technique was used to select study participants. A total of 413 people who are living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through interviews when study participants finished their visit. Variables whose value was less than 0.2 in bivariable logistic regression were entered into multivariable binary logistic regression to identify factors associated with poor sleep quality. Result. The level of poor sleep quality among people living with HIV/AIDS was 73.7%. People living with HIV/AIDS who had poor sleep hygiene were 2.5 times more likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those patients who had good sleep hygiene. Moreover, study participants who had anxiety were three times more likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not have anxiety (AOR: 3.09; 95% CI = 1.61–5.89). Study participants who had chronic diseases in addition to HIV/AIDS were 3 times more likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who do not have it (AOR: 2.99; 95% CI = 1.15–7.79). Additionally, people living with HIV/AIDS who were stigmatized due to their disease were 2.5 times more likely to have poor sleep quality compared with their counterparts (AOR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.43–4.21). Conclusion. In this study, the magnitude of poor sleep quality among people living with HIV/AIDS was high. Being a farmer, being a merchant, having chronic diseases, having anxiety, having a CD4 count of 200–499 cells/mm3, being stigmatized, and having poor sleep hygiene were factors that had an association with poor sleep quality. Healthcare providers should screen people living with HIV/AIDS for anxiety and encourage them to practice good sleep hygiene during follow-up.
HIV Late Presenters in Asia: Management and Public Health Challenges
Many individuals are diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at an advanced stage of illness and are considered late presenters. We define late presentation as a CD4 cell count below 350 cells/mm3 at the time of HIV diagnosis, or presenting with an AIDS-defining illness regardless of CD4 count. Across Asia, an estimated 34–72% of people diagnosed with HIV are late presenters. HIV late presenters generally have a higher disease burden and higher comorbidity such as opportunistic infections than those who are diagnosed earlier. They also have a higher mortality rate and generally exhibit poorer immune recovery following combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As such, late HIV presentation leads to increased resource burden and costs to healthcare systems. HIV late presentation also poses an increased risk of community transmission since the transmission rate from people unaware of their HIV status is approximately 3.5 times higher than that of early presenters. There are several factors which contribute to HIV late presentation. Fear of stigmatisation and discrimination are significant barriers to both testing and accessing treatment. A lack of perceived risk and a lack of knowledge by individuals also contribute to late presentation. Lack of referral for testing by healthcare providers is another identified barrier in China and may extend to other regions across Asia. Effective strategies are still needed to reduce the incidence of late presentation across Asia. Key areas of focus should be increasing community awareness of the risk of HIV, reducing stigma and discrimination in testing, and educating healthcare professionals on the need for early testing and on the most effective ways to engage with people living with HIV. Recent initiatives such as intensified patient adherence support programs and HIV self-testing also have the potential to improve access to testing and reduce late diagnosis.