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AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 131045, 14 pages
Research Article

Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention Targeting HIV-Infected Prisoners in Malaysia

1Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of Connecticut, 358 Mansfield Road, Box U-2101, Storrs, CT 06269-2101, USA
2CERiA, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510-2283, USA

Received 4 February 2011; Revised 26 May 2011; Accepted 13 June 2011

Academic Editor: Robert R. Redfield

Copyright © 2011 Michael M. Copenhaver et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia represent a critical target population for secondary HIV risk reduction interventions and care. We report on the process and outcome of our formative research aimed at systematically selecting and adapting an EBI designed to reduce secondary HIV risk and improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among soon-to-be-released HIV-infected prisoners. Our formative work involved a critical examination of established EBIs and associated published reports complemented by data elicited through structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders, members of the target population, and their family members. Based on all information, we adapted the Holistic Health Recovery Program targeting people living with HIV (HHRP+), an EBI, to consist of eight 2-hour sessions that cover a range of specified topics so that participants may individually apply intervention content as needed to accommodate their particular substance abuse, HIV risk, and antiretroviral adherence issues. This study provides a complete example of the process of selecting and adapting an EBI—taking into account both empirical evidence and input from target organization stakeholders and target population members and their families—for use in real world prison settings where high-risk populations are concentrated.