Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 367604, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/367604
Research Article

Differences in the Nonuse of any Contraception and Use of Specific Contraceptive Methods in HIV Positive and HIV Negative Rwandan Women

1Centre for Public Health Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mazer 515, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
2Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
3Department of Statistics and Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research, Rutgers University, New Brusnwick, NJ 08901, USA
4New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
5Department of Medicine, Stroger (Cook County) Hospital and Rush University, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
6Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
7Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Centre, Bronx, NY 10467, USA

Received 21 March 2012; Accepted 25 October 2012

Academic Editor: Elizabeth Bukusi

Copyright © 2012 Adebola A. Adedimeji et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, Guidelines on the use of Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants, 2010, http://www.who.int/hiv/topics/mtct/en/index.html.
  2. K. R. Culwell, M. Vekemans, U. de Silva, M. Hurwitz, and B. B. Crane, “Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health: contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 110, pp. S13–S16, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Grabbe, R. Stephenson, B. Vwalika et al., “Knowledge, use, and concerns about contraceptive methods among sero-discordant couples in Rwanda and Zambia,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1449–1456, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Central Intelligence Agency, World Fact Book, 2011, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rw.html.
  5. United Nations, Glion Call to Action on Family Planning and HIV/AIDS in Women and Children, New York, NY, USA, 2004.
  6. C. Thorne, “Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 458–465, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Cooper, J. Moodley, V. Zweigenthal, L. G. Bekker, I. Shah, and L. Myer, “Fertility intentions and reproductive health care needs of people living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for integrating reproductive health and HIV Care services,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. S38–S46, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Cooper, J. Harries, L. Myer, P. Orner, and H. Bracken, “"Life is still going on": reproductive intentions among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 274–283, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Rutenberg, A. E. Biddlecom, and F. A. D. Kaona, “Reproductive decision-making in the context of HIV and AIDS: a qualitative study in ndola, Zambia,” International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 124–130, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. L. Stanwood, S. E. Cohn, J. R. Heiser, and M. Pugliese, “Contraception and fertility plans in a cohort of HIV-positive women in care,” Contraception, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 294–298, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Da Silveira Rossi, G. A. Fonsechi-Carvasan, M. Y. Makuch, E. Amaral, and L. Bahamondes, “Factors associated with reproductive options in HIV-infected women,” Contraception, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 45–50, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Nattabi, J. Li, S. C. Thompson, C. G. Orach, and J. Earnest, “A systematic review of factors influencing fertility desires and intentions among people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for policy and service delivery,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 949–968, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. E. Mantell, J. A. Smit, and Z. A. Stein, “The right to choose parenthood among HIV-infected women and men,” Journal of Public Health Policy, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 367–378, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Ayad and R. Hong, “Levels and trends of contraceptive prevalence and estimate of unmet need for family planning in Rwanda: further analysis of the Rwandan demographic and health surveys, 2000-2007-2008,” DHS Further Analysis Reports 67, ICF Macro, Calverton, Md, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  15. B. Elul, T. Delvaux, E. Munyana et al., “Pregnancy desires, and contraceptive knowledge and use among prevention of mother-to-child transmission clients in Rwanda,” AIDS, vol. 23, supplement 1, pp. S19–S26, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. M. Ndaruhuye, A. Broekhuis, and P. Hooimeijer, “Demand and unmet need for means of family limitation in Rwanda,” International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 122–130, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. Dhont, F. G. Ndayisaba, C. A. Peltier, A. Nzabonimpa, M. Temmerman, and J. van de Wijgert, “Improved access increases postpartum uptake of contraceptive implants among HIV-positive women in Rwanda,” European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 420–425, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. F. Taulo, M. Berry, A. Tsui et al., “Fertility intentions of HIV-1 infected and uninfected women in Malawi: a longitudinal study,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 13, supplement 1, pp. S20–S27, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. McCarraher, C. Cuthbertson, D. Kung'U, C. Otterness, L. Johnson, and G. Magiri, “Sexual behavior, fertility desires and unmet need for family planning among home-based care clients and caregivers in Kenya,” AIDS Care, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1057–1065, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. M. Mutiso, J. Kinuthia, and Z. Qureshi, “Contraceptive use among HIV infected women attending comprehensive care centre,” East African Medical Journal, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 171–177, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. W. Reynolds, B. Janowitz, R. Homan, and L. Johnson, “The value of contraception to prevent perinatal HIV transmission,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 350–356, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Wilcher, T. Petruney, H. W. Reynolds, and W. Cates, “From effectiveness to impact: contraception as an HIV prevention intervention,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 84, supplement 2, pp. ii54–ii60, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. B. Johnson, P. Akwara, S. O. Rutstein, and S. Bernstein, “Fertility preferences and the need for contraception among women living with HIV: the basis for a joint action agenda,” AIDS, vol. 23, supplement 1, pp. S7–S17, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. W. Reynolds, M. J. Steiner, and W. Cates, “Contraception's proved potential to fight HIV,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 184–185, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. V. D. Paal, L. A. Shafer, B. N. Mayanja, J. A. G. Whitworth, and H. Grosskurth, “Effect of pregnancy on HIV disease progression and survival among women in rural Uganda,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 920–928, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. T. Halperin, J. Stover, and H. W. Reynolds, “Benefits and costs of expanding access to family planning programs to women living with HIV,” AIDS, vol. 23, supplmenet 1, pp. S123–S130, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. B. Spaulding, D. B. Brickley, C. Kennedy et al., “Linking family planning with HIV/AIDS interventions: a systematic review of the evidence,” AIDS, vol. 23, supplement 1, pp. S79–S88, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. W. Reynolds, B. Janowitz, R. Wilcher, and W. Cates, “Contraception to prevent HIV-positive births: current contribution and potential cost savings in PEPFAR countries,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 84, supplement 2, pp. ii49–ii53, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. H. Cohen, M. Fabri, X. Cai et al., “Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in HIV-infected and at-risk Rwandan women,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1783–1791, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. M. Lazar, X. Wu, Q. Shi et al., “Arterial wave reflection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected rwandan women,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 877–882, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. P. Baker, J. Leon, and J. M. Collins, “Facts, attitudes, and health reasoning about HIV and AIDS: explaining the education effect on condom use among adults in sub-sahara Africa,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1319–1327, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. K. Michielsen, M. F. Chersich, S. Luchters, P. De Koker, R. Van Rossem, and M. Temmerman, “Effectiveness of HIV prevention for youth in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized trials,” AIDS, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1193–1202, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Peltzer and S. Ramlagan, “Safer sexual behaviours after 1 year of antiretroviral treatment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a prospective cohort study,” Sexual Health, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 135–141, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. Hearst and S. Chen, “Condom promotion for AIDS prevention in the developing World: is it working?” Studies in Family Planning, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. M. Wingood and R. J. DiClemente, “Gender-related correlates and predictors of consistent condom use among young adult African-American women: a prospective analysis,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 139–145, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. M. Williamson, K. Buston, and H. Sweeting, “Young women and limits to the normalisation of condom use: a qualitative study,” AIDS Care, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 561–566, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. A. Onayade, T. C. Abiona, C. Ugbala, G. Alozie, and O. Adetuyi, “Determinants of consistent condom use among adolescents and young adults attending a tertiary educational institution in Ile-Ife, Nigeria,” The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 185–191, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Awusabo-Asare and S. K. Annim, “Wealth status and risky sexual behaviour in Ghana and Kenya,” Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 27–39, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. J. Heard, A. A. Adedimeji, T. Mitsunaga, and U. Larsen, “Barriers to condom use among Nigerian men: attitude, cost and physical access,” in Population Association of America Annual Conference, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, March 2005.
  40. R. A. Crosby, W. L. Yarber, C. A. Graham, and S. A. Sanders, “Does it fit okay? Problems with condom use as a function of self-reported poor fit,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 36–38, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. A. Crosby, C. A. Graham, W. L. Yarber, and S. A. Sanders, “Problems with condoms may be reduced for men taking ample time to apply them,” Sexual Health, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 66–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. C. Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, D. Cain, and S. Jooste, “Condom failure among men receiving sexually transmissible infection clinic services, Cape Town, South Africa,” Sexual Health, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 300–304, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. J. Sparrow and K. Lavill, “Breakage and slippage of condoms in family planning clients,” Contraception, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. E. Mark, J. Meinzen-Derr, R. Stephenson et al., “Contraception among HIV concordant and discordant couples in Zambia: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1200–1210, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. H. Kapiga, E. F. Lyamuya, G. K. Lwihula, and D. J. Hunter, “The incidence of HIV infection among women using family planning methods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania,” AIDS, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 75–84, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Allen, J. Tice, P. Van de Perre et al., “Effect of serotesting with counselling on condom use and seroconversion among HIV discordant couples in Africa,” British Medical Journal, vol. 304, no. 6842, pp. 1605–1609, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Allen, A. Serufilira, V. Gruber et al., “Pregnancy and contraception use among urban Rwandan women after HIV testing and counseling,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 705–710, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. H. J. Ahrendt, D. Adolf, and K. J. Buhling, “Advantages and challenges of oestrogen-free hormonal contraception,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1947–1955, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. D. Merkh, P. G. Whittaker, K. Baker, L. Hock-Long, and K. Armstrong, “Young unmarried men's understanding of female hormonal contraception,” Contraception, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 228–235, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Kibuuka, D. Guwatudde, R. Kimutai et al., “Contraceptive use in women enrolled into preventive HIV vaccine trials: experience from a phase I/II trial in East Africa,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 4, Article ID e5164, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. M. Leclerc, N. Dubois-Colas, and M. Garenne, “Hormonal contraception and HIV prevalence in four African countries,” Contraception, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 371–376, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. J. Kongnyuy, V. Soskolne, and B. Adler, “Hormonal contraception, sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon,” BMC Women's Health, vol. 8, article 19, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. K. Nanda, E. Amaral, M. Hays, M. A. M. Viscola, N. Mehta, and L. Bahamondes, “Pharmacokinetic interactions between depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and combination antiretroviral therapy,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 965–971, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. D. H. Watts, J. G. Park, S. E. Cohn et al., “Safety and tolerability of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy: ACTG A5093,” Contraception, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 84–90, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. S. Morrison, B. A. Richardson, F. Mmiro et al., “Hormonal contraception and the risk of HIV acquisition,” AIDS, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 85–95, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. M. Baeten, L. Lavreys, M. Sagar et al., “Effect of contraceptive methods on natural history of HIV: studies from the Mombasa cohort,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 38, supplement 1, pp. S18–S21, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. L. Lavreys, J. M. Baeten, V. Chohan et al., “Higher set point plasma viral load and more-severe acute HIV type 1 (HIV-1) illness predict mortality among high-risk HIV-1-infected African women,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1333–1339, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. M. Stringer, C. Kaseba, J. Levy et al., “A randomized trial of the intrauterine contraceptive device vs hormonal contraception in women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 197, no. 2, pp. 144.e1–144.e8, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. H. E. Cejtin, L. Jacobson, G. Springer et al., “Effect of hormonal contraceptive use on plasma HIV-1-RNA levels among HIV-infected women,” AIDS, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1702–1704, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. B. A. Richardson, P. A. Otieno, D. Mbori-Ngacha, J. Overbaugh, C. Farquhar, and G. C. John-Stewart, “Hormonal contraception and HIV-1 disease progression among postpartum Kenyan women,” AIDS, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 749–753, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Ministry of Health, National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda, and ICF Macro, Rwanda Interim Demographic and Health Survey 2007-08, MOH, NISR and ICF Macro, Calverton, Md, USA, 2009.
  62. M. A. Magadi and A. O. Agwanda, “Investigating the association between HIV/AIDS and recent fertility patterns in Kenya,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 335–344, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Sneeringer and T. Logan, “A closer examination of the HIV/Fertility linkage,” DHS Working Papers 63, ICF Macro, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  64. M. L. Garenne, S. M. Tollman, M. A. Collinson, and K. Kahn, “Fertility trends and net reproduction in Agincourt, rural South Africa, 1992–2004,” Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, vol. 35, no. 69, pp. 68–76, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Young, “In sorrow to bring forth children: fertility amidst the plague of HIV,” Journal of Economic Growth, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 283–327, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. Gregson, T. Zhuwau, R. M. Anderson, and S. K. Chandiwana, “HIV and fertility change in rural Zimbabwe,” Health Transition Review, vol. 7, supplement 2, pp. 89–112, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  67. C. S. Camlin, M. Garenne, and T. A. Moultrie, “Fertility trend and pattern in a rural area of South Africa in the context of HIV/AIDS,” African Journal of Reproductive Health, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 38–54, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. C. M. Noel-Miller, “Concern regarding the HIV/AIDS epidemic and individual childbearing: evidence from rural Malawi,” Demographic Research 2003 Special Collection 1, Article 10, http://www.demographic-research.org/special/1/10/S1-10.pdf.
  69. J. P. M. Ntozi, “Impact of HIV/AIDS on fertility in sub-sahara Africa,” African Population Studies, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 103–124, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  70. S. Gregson, B. Zaba, and S. Catherine-Hunter, “The impact of HIV_1 on fertility in sub-sahara Africa: causes and consequences,” 2002, http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/completingfertility/RevisedZabapaper.PDF.