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AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 602120, 6 pages
Research Article

Towards Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: The Impact of a Rapid Results Initiative in Nyanza Province, Kenya

1Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
2Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES), Research, Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
3U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Nairobi, Kenya
4Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA

Received 30 November 2011; Accepted 16 January 2012

Academic Editor: Annette H. Sohn

Copyright © 2012 Lisa L. Dillabaugh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Many HIV-positive pregnant women and infants are still not receiving optimal services, preventing the goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and improving maternal child health overall. A Rapid Results Initiative (RRI) approach was utilized to address key challenges in delivery of prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) services including highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) uptake for women and infants. The RRI was conducted between April and June 2011 at 119 health facilities in five districts in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Aggregated site-level data were compared at baseline before the RRI (Oct 2010–Jan 2011), during the RRI, and post-RRI (Jul–Sep 2011) using pre-post cohort analysis. HAART uptake amongst all HIV-positive pregnant women increased by 40% (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.7) and continued to improve post-RRI (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4–1.8). HAART uptake in HIV-positive infants remained stable (RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.4) during the RRI and improved by 30% (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0–1.6) post-RRI. Significant improvement in PMTCT services can be achieved through introduction of an RRI, which appears to lead to sustained benefits for pregnant HIV-infected women and their infants.