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AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 934041, 12 pages
Research Article

Prevalence of Drug Resistance and Associated Mutations in a Population of HIV-1+ Puerto Ricans: 2006–2010

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Universidad Central del Caribe, P.O. Box 60327, Bayamón, PR 00960-6032, USA
2School of Science and Technology, Universidad Metropolitana, P.O. Box 21150, San Juan, PR 00928-1150, USA

Received 30 September 2011; Revised 30 January 2012; Accepted 13 February 2012

Academic Editor: Ricardo S. Diaz

Copyright © 2012 Lycely del C. Sepúlveda-Torres et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This is a continuation of our efforts to maintain a record of the evolution of HIV-1 infection in Puerto Rico by monitoring the expression levels of antiretroviral drug-resistance-associated mutations. Samples from 2,500 patients from 2006–2010 were analyzed using the TruGene HIV-1 genotyping kit and the OpenGene DNA sequencing system. Results show that 58.8% of males and 65.3% of females had HIV-1 with resistance to at least one medication. The average number of HIV mutations was 6.0 in males and 6.1 in females. Statistically significant differences between men and women were recorded in the levels of HIV-1 expressed mutations and antiretroviral drug resistance. The most prevalent antiretroviral medication resistance shifted from zalcitabine to nevirapine and efavirenz in the five-year period. M184V and L63P were the dominant mutations for the reverse transcriptase and the protease genes, respectively, but an increase in the incidence of minority mutations was observed.