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AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1623094, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1623094
Research Article

Anaemia and Iron Homeostasis in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ghana

1Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
2Medical Laboratory Department, Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale, Ghana
3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana

Received 19 November 2015; Revised 29 January 2016; Accepted 1 March 2016

Academic Editor: Robert R. Redfield

Copyright © 2016 Christian Obirikorang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aim. We determined the prevalence of anaemia and evaluated markers of iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV patients. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study on 319 participants was carried out at the Tamale Teaching Hospital from July 2013 to December 2013, 219 patients on HAART (designated On-HAART) and 100 HAART-naive patients. Data gathered include sociodemography, clinical history, and selected laboratory assays. Results. Prevalence of anaemia was 23.8%. On-HAART participants had higher CD4/CD3 lymphocyte counts, Hb, HCT/PCV, MCV, MCH, iron, ferritin, and TSAT (). Hb, iron, ferritin, and TSAT decreased from grade 1 to grade 3 anaemia and CD4/CD3 lymphocyte count was lowest in grade 3 anaemia (). Iron () decreased with disease severity whilst transferrin () and TIBC () increased with disease severity. Seventy-six (23.8%) participants fulfilled the criteria for anaemia, 86 (26.9%) for iron deficiency, 41 (12.8%) for iron deficiency anaemia, and 17 (5.3%) for iron overload. The frequency of anaemia was higher amongst participants not on HAART (OR 2.6 for grade 1 anaemia; OR 3.0 for grade 3 anaemia). Conclusion. In this study population, HIV-associated anaemia is common and is related to HAART status and disease progression. HIV itself is the most important cause of anaemia and treatment of HIV should be a priority compared to iron supplementation.