Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2016, Article ID 9456906, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9456906
Research Article

Costing of Paediatric Treatment alongside Clinical Trials under Low Resource Constraint Environments: Cotrimoxazole and Antiretroviral Medications in Children Living with HIV/AIDS

Department of Economics, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Received 4 July 2016; Revised 4 September 2016; Accepted 6 September 2016

Academic Editor: Glenda Gray

Copyright © 2016 Bona M. Chitah. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Fylkesnes, R. M. Musonda, K. Kasumba et al., The HIV Epidemic in Zambia: Socio-Demographic Prevalence Patterns Anindications of Trends among Women of Childbearing Age, Government of Zambia, 1997.
  2. Ministry of Health, National Population Projections: The HIV/AIDS Pandemic—Where Are We Now, Where Are We Going?Government of the Republic of Zambia, 2001.
  3. Central Statistics Office (CSO), National Population Census Projections, Government of the Republic of Zambia, 2012.
  4. Central Statistics Office (CSO), Ministry of Health: Zambia—HIV/AIDS Epidemiological Projections, Government of the Republic of Zambia, 2004.
  5. Central Statistics Office (CSO), Ministry of Health (MOH), Tropical Diseases Research Centre (TDRC), University of Zambia (UNZA), and Macro International Inc, Zambia Demographic Health Survey 2007, 2007.
  6. Ministry of Health, Central Board of Health, and Government of the Republic of Zambia, Zambia Antenatal Clinic Surveillance Report, 1994–2004, 2005.
  7. Ministry of Health, National HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and STIs Council (NAC), Zambia Country Report—Multi—Sectoral AIDS Response Monitoring and Evaluation Biennial Report 2006-2007, Lusaka, 2008.
  8. World Health Organization, Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV Infection in Infants and Children: Towards Universal Access, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006.
  9. H. H. Marques, B. F. Couttolenc, M. Latorre, M. de Aquino, M. I. Aveiro, and A. M. A. Pluciennik, “Costs of care provided in a university hospital for children exposed to or infected with the HIV/AIDS,” Cadernos de Saúde Pública, vol. 23, supplement 3, pp. S402–S413, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  10. C. A. Scott, H. Iyer, D. L. Bwalya et al., “Retention in care and outpatient costs for children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: a retrospective cohort analysis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 6, article e67910, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. O. Galrraga, V. J. Wirtz, A. Figueroa-Lara et al., “Unit costs for delivery of antiretroviral treatment and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a systematic review for low- and middle-income countries,” PharmacoEconomics, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 579–599, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. A. Menzies, A. A. Berruti, R. Berzon et al., “The cost of providing comprehensive HIV treatment in PEPFAR-supported programs,” AIDS, vol. 25, no. 14, pp. 1753–1760, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. S. Iyer, C. A. Scott, D. L. Bwalya et al., “Resource utilization and costs of care prior to ART initiation for pediatric patients in Zambia,” AIDS Research and Treatment, vol. 2014, Article ID 235483, 5 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Taiwo, A. Adesina, L. Bollinger, B. D. Lembela, S. Diamond, and E. Dziubame, Paediatric and Adolescent Antiretroviral Treatment in Zambia: Estimating the Cost of Universal, WHO/IATT/UNICEF, 2014.
  15. A. Adesina and J. Waldron, Incremental Cost of Providing PAediatric Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) in Zambia, Futures Group, USAID. Health Policy Initiative, Costing Task Order, Washington, DC, USA, 2013.
  16. K. Doherty, S. Essajee, M. Penazzato, C. Holmes, S. Resch, and A. Ciaranello, “Estimating age-based antiretroviral therapy costs for HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings based on World Health Organization weight-based dosing recommendations,” BMC Health Services Research, vol. 14, no. 1, article 201, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Chintu, G. J. Bhat, A. S. Walker et al., “Co-trimoxazole as prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV-infected Zambian children (CHAP): a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9448, pp. 1865–1871, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. J. Prendergast, “Complications of long-term antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 245–246, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. W. M. F. Drummond, M. J. Sculphur, A. Briggs, G. L. Stoddart, and G. W. Torrance, Methods for Evaluation of Health Care Programmes, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2006.
  20. Management Sciences for Health, The World Health Organisation, International Drug Price Indicator Guide, 2009 Edition, Medford Massachusetts, 2010, http://erc.msh.org/dmpguide/pdf/DrugPriceGuide_2014.pdf.
  21. Management Sciences for Health-The World Health Organisation, International Drug Price Indicator Guide, 2014 Edition, The World Health Organisation, Medford, Mass, USA, 2015, http://erc.msh.org/mainpage.cfm?file=1.0.htm&module=DMP&language=English.
  22. W. M. F. Drummond, M. J. Sculphur, K. Claxton, G. L. Stoddart, and G. W. Torrance, Methods for Evaluation of Health Care Programmes, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 2015.
  23. D. W. Young, Financiall Control in Health Care: A Managerial Perspective, Dow-Jones Irwin, Homewood, Ill, USA, 2004.
  24. L. D. Fairclough, Design and Analysis of Quality of Life Studies in Clinical Trials, Chapman and Hall/CRC Press Company, London, UK, 2002.
  25. J. A. Barber and S. G. Thompson, “Analysis of cost data in randomized trials: an application of the non-parametric bootstrap,” Journal of Statistics in Medicine, vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 3219–3236, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus