Table 1: Literature matrix of studies on HIV-stigma in Nigeria: 2002–2016.

SNRef: author (year)Study designStudy population and locationObjectives

(1)1999: Fawole et al.Quasi-experimental studySecondary students in South West NigeriaTo assess the effect of educational intervention on attitudes of students to people living with HIV/AIDS

(2)2000: UwakweQuasi-experimental studyStudent nurses in SW NigeriaTo investigate the effect of educational program on attitudes and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS

(3)2002: Alubo et al.Qualitative studyCommunity members in southern part of Benue State, North Central NigeriaTo document the perceptions of PLHIV, family, and community members about HIV stigma

(4)2002: Ezedinachi et al.Quasi-experimental studyFacility-based among health workers in South South NigeriaTo assess the effect of educational intervention on knowledge and attitudes of workers to PLHIV

(5)2003: Adebajo et al.Cross-sectional surveyNurses and medical lab scientists in public health facilities in Lagos, South West, NigeriaTo document attitudes to PLHIV

(6)2005: Adedigba et al.Cross-sectional studyOral health workers in Osun State, South West NigeriaAssessed KAP of infection control in managing HIV-infected patients

(7)2005: Reis et al.Cross-sectional surveyHealth workers at a tertiary facility in 4 states of NigeriaTo assess the extent of discrimination against PLHIV

(8)2006: Adeokun et al.HIV surveillance projectMarket women in Ibadan and Ogbomosho, South West NigeriaTo assess the effect of behavioural change intervention on HIV stigma and discrimination

(9)2007: BabalolaCross-sectional surveyPopulation-based sample, Bauchi (North East) and Kano (North West), NigeriaTo assess the relationship between individual perceived stigma, community stigma (social norm), and attitude to VCT. Male and females were analysed separately
Stigma was used as main IV

(10)2008: Bukar et al.Cross-sectional study amongDental professionals in one state in each region of NigeriaTo investigate discrimination against PLHIV among dental professionals

(11)2008: Lapinski and NwuluField experiment: Group 1 exposed to a film versus another group not exposedCommunity-based study, Abuja, North Central NigeriaThe assess the efficacy of an education-entertainment intervention (film) on HIV risk perceptions and perceived stigma

(12)2009: Adewuya et al.Cross-sectional studyPLHIV at a private HIV/AIDS care centre in South West NigeriaDetermine prevalence and factors associated with PTSD induced by a stigmatising event among PLHIV

(13)2009: Babalola et al.Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey-National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey (NARHS) 2005Population-based nationally representative sampleTo determine the relationship between media exposure, community media saturation, and accepting attitudes to PLHIV in Nigeria

(14)2009: Sadoh et al.Cross-sectional studyHealthcare workers at a facility in South Eastern NigeriaTo document the attitude of health workers to colleagues infected with HIV

(15)2010: Fakolade et al.Secondary analysis of NARHS 2003, 2005, and 2007 dataPopulation-based nationally representative sampleAssess the impact of mass media exposure on HIV stigma and discrimination

(16)2010: Mbonu et al.Qualitative method: in-depth interview (IDI)Community members, healthcare workers and PLHIV in Port-Harcourt, South South NigeriaTo explore power-related differences between men and women in their reactions to people living with HIV/AIDS at family, community, and societal (institutional) level

(17)2010: Smith and MbakwemIDI and observation in 2004, 2006, and 2007PLHIV selected from a tertiary treatment facility in Owerri, South East NigeriaTo explore the reproductive life of HIV-positive men and women and understand how they balance medical advice with societal expectations about marriage and reproduction

(18)2011: Adebayo et al.Secondary analysis of NARHS 2003, 2005, and 2007 dataPopulation-based nationally representative sampleExplore levels, trends, and geographical variations in accepting attitude to PLHIV (stigma measure)

(19)2011: Winskell et al.Textual analysis of narratives from a writing contest on HIV stigmaYouth participants, Enugu, South East NigeriaCompare social representation of symbolic stigma (moralistic blaming and shaming of those infected) across 6 countries

(20)2012: Owolabi et al.Cross-sectional studyPLHIV at a tertiary treatment facility in Ilorin North Central, NigeriaDescribe the level of stigma and discrimination faced by ART patients

(21)2013: Blessed and OgbaluCross-sectional studyPLHIV at a tertiary facility in SE NigeriaDescribe the forms of stigma experienced by PLHIV

(22)2013: Kavanaugh et al.Cross-sectional studyCommunity-based sample; Lagos (South West), Benue (North Central), Kaduna (North West), and Enugu (South West)Describe community attitudes towards possible outcomes of pregnancy by HIV-positive women (abortion or birth)

(23)2013: Odimegwu et al.Mixed-method cross-sectional studyCommunity-based; Osogbo (South West) and Orlu (South East) NigeriaDescribe attitude of community members to PLHIV and how this affects VCT uptake

(24)2013: Okoror et al.Qualitative exploration (FGD and IDI)Community-based organisation in South West NigeriaExplore how stigma affects ART adherence and the effect of ART on perceived stigma

(25)2013: Sekoni and OwoajeCross-sectional studyHealthcare workers at Primary Healthcare Centres in Kwara State, North Central NigeriaTo investigate stigma and discrimination against PLWHA among PHC workers

(26)2014: Aransiola et al.Qualitative studyPLHIV at a secondary health facility in South West NigeriaTo explore stigma and other survival challenges among ART patients

(27)2014: Olalekan et al.Qualitative studyPLHIV at a facility in Lagos, South West NigeriaTo explore the perceptions of PLHIV about societal stigma associated with HIV

(28)2014: Omosanya et al.Cross-sectional studyPLHIV, tertiary facility in South West NigeriaTo investigate the relationship between HIV stigma and ART adherence

(29)2014: Onyebuchi-Iwudibia and BrownCross-sectional studyPLHIV; treatment facility in Enugu, South East NigeriaTo determine prevalence of depression and its association with HIV-related stigma

(30)2015: Dahlui et al.Secondary analysis of Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013 dataPopulation-based nationally representative sampleDescribe the level of stigma against PLHIV in Nigeria

(31)2015: Schwartz et al.Longitudinal study amongMSM at a secured clinic setting in Abuja, North Central NigeriaTo investigate the effect of the same-sex prohibition act on stigma and discrimination against MSM in Nigeria

(32)2016: Olley et al.Cross-sectional studyPLHIV, tertiary treatment facility in Akure, South West, NigeriaTo investigate the mediating or moderating role of anticipated discrimination in the relationship between HIV-related stigma and status disclosure