Table of Contents
Arthritis
Volume 2017, Article ID 7481619, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7481619
Research Article

The Influence of Oblique Angle Forced Exercise in Surgically Destabilized Stifle Joints Is Synergistic with Bone, but Antagonistic with Cartilage in an Ovine Model of Osteoarthritis

1Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Center for Integrated BioSystems, School of Veterinary Medicine, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA
2Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Clinical Veterinary Services, School of Veterinary Medicine, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA
3Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
4Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA
5Department of Kinesiology & Health Science, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Jeffrey B. Mason; ude.usu@nosam.ffej

Received 29 November 2016; Accepted 9 February 2017; Published 27 February 2017

Academic Editor: Charles J. Malemud

Copyright © 2017 Rachel J. Hill et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Large animal models of osteoarthritis are a necessary testing ground for FDA approval of human medicine applications. Sheep models have advantages over other available large animals, but development and progression of osteoarthritis in sheep is exceedingly slow, which handicaps progress in development of potential treatments. We combined oblique angle forced exercise to increase stress on the stifle, with surgical destabilization to hasten the development of osteoarthritis in ewes. Methods for early detection of clinical signs included radiography, urine, and serum biomarker assays and gait analysis and ex vivo we used microcomputed tomography and macroscopic joint analysis. Our model was able to produce clinically detectable signs of osteoarthritis in a relatively short period (14 weeks). Changes in bone were highly correlated between microcomputed tomography and radiographic analysis and changes in cartilage correlated well between urinary glycosaminoglycan levels and serum aggrecanase analyses. Exercise improved the negative effects of destabilization in bone but exacerbated the negative effects of destabilization in cartilage. These observations suggest that we may need to consider treatments for bone and cartilage separately. These results represent an improved large animal model of osteoarthritis with rapid onset of disease and superior detection of bone and soft tissue changes.