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Adsorption Science & Technology publishes original research and review articles on the topic of adsorption.
Chief Editor, Dr Ashleigh Fletcher, is based at the University of Strathclyde, UK. Her current research focuses on adsorption processes.
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The Effect of Proton and Arsenic Concentration on As(III) Removal by Hematite and Kaolin Complexes
With the intensification of human activities, arsenite (As(III)) pollutant from the soil and ground water has been a threat to human health, and the problem gradually becomes the focus of attention. In this study, the effects of several environment factors on As(III) removal ability of complex minerals are determined through the analysis of mineralogical characteristics of the complex synthesis of hematite and kaolin, using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and specific surface area. In the results, the XRD patterns of hematite and kaolin complexes indicate that the loading covers up some characteristic peaks of minerals in kaolin, which can be that hematite loading decrease the order of structure for some minerals. With increasing Fe content, the hydroxyl sites gradually increase, therefore strengthening the As(III) removal ability of complexes. With increasing the As(III) concentration, the removal ratios of kaolin on As(III) almost keep unchanged and that of complexes show no obvious regularity. However, with the pH increasing, the removal ratios of all samples keep increasing. Furthermore, the increasing of As(III) concentration and pH both improve As(III) removal amount significantly, especially for As(III) concentration. In addition, there is no forming of new mineral through it as observed by XRD. Therefore, hematite loading can promote the As(III) removal on kaolin through adsorption in different environments, which can provide a better method for the remediation of arsenic pollution.
Effective Removal of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solutions Using Magnetic Nanocomposite: Synthesis, Characterization, and Equilibrium Study
In this work, magnetized activated Juniperus procera leaves (Fe3O4@AJPL) were successfully prepared via chemical activation of JPL and in situ coprecipitation with Fe3O4. A Fe3O4@AJPL nanocomposite was successfully applied for the elimination of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous media. The prepared Fe3O4@AJPL adsorbent was characterized by SEM, EDX, TEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, and BET surface area analyses. The BET surface area and pore size of the Fe3O4@AJPL nanocomposite were found to be 38.44 m2/g and 10.6 nm, respectively. The XRD and FTIR results indicated the formation of a Fe3O4@AJPL nanocomposite. Different parameters, such as pH of the solution (3–8), adsorbent dosage (10–100 mg), temperature (25–45°C), contact time (5-240 min), and initial MG concentrations (20–350 mg/L), for the elimination of the MG dye using Fe3O4@AJPL were optimized and found to be 7, 50 mg, 45°C, 120 min, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The nonlinear isotherm and kinetic studies exhibited a better fitting to second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 318.3 mg/g at 45°C, which was highly superior to the previously reported magnetic nanocomposite adsorbents. EDX analyses confirmed the presence of nitrogen on the Fe3O4@AJPL surface after MG adsorption. The calculated thermodynamic factors indicated endothermic and spontaneous processes. The desorption of MG dye from Fe3O4@AJPL was performed using a solution of 90% ethanol. Finally, it could be concluded that the designed Fe3O4@AJPL magnetic nanocomposite will be a cost-effective and promising adsorbent for the elimination of MG from aqueous media.
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Enhance the Tolerance and Remediation Potential of Bacillus spp. against Heavy Metal Stress
Nanoparticles and bacteria have received a great attention worldwide due to their ability to remove heavy metals (HMs) from wastewater. The current study is aimed at finding the interaction of HMs-resistance strains (Bacillus cereus and Lysinibacillus macroides) with different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mg/L) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and how they would cope with HM stress (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Cu). The growth rate and tolerance potential of bacteria were increased at lowered concentrations (5 and 10 mg/L) of ZnO NPs against HMs while it was unaffected at higher concentrations of ZnO NPs. These findings were confirmed by minimum inhibition zone and higher zinc solubilization at lower concentrations of ZnO NPs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that higher concentrations of ZnO NP increased HM accumulation in bacteria cells which had a significant impact on bacterial morphology and caused pores in bacterial membrane while in the case of lower concentrations, the cell remained unaffected. These results were further supported by the less production of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents at lower concentrations of ZnO NPs against heavy metal stress. This study suggested that synergistic treatment of Bacillus spp. with lower concentrations of ZnO NPs enhances the tolerance potential and significantly reduces the HM toxicity.
Malachite Green Removal by Activated Potassium Hydroxide Clove Leaf Agrowaste Biosorbent: Characterization, Kinetic, Isotherm, and Thermodynamic Studies
Although several approaches have been explored for the removal of dyes and other toxic materials from water as well as the entire environment, notwithstanding, researchers/scientists are still pursuing novel, low-cost, and eco-friendly biosorbents for the effective removal of such contaminants. Herein, clove leaves (CL) were utilized as a biosorbent for the sequestration of malachite green (MG) from a water-soluble solution. The CL was subsequently activated using potassium hydroxide (KOH) and characterized using the FTIR and FESEM to determine the functional groups on the activated clove leaves (CL-KOH) and the morphology of the adsorbent. The adsorption of MG was observed to be relatively dependent on the dosage of sorbent utilized, initial MG concentration, and sorption process contact time. The adsorption process of MG to CL was ideally described using the Dubinin–Radushkevich and Elovich models with the determination of maximum sorption capacity of approximately 131.6 mg·g-1. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters calculated showed that the adsorption of MG to the adsorbent was exothermic with the process involving physical sorption as well as chemical sorption processes with negligible adsorption energy. In conclusion, the study has revealed that the CL is a cost-effective biosorbent with high adsorption efficiency for the sequestration of MG from a water-soluble solution and can be recycled for further usage.
Effect of Ce Addition on Adsorption and Oxidation of NO over MnO/Al2O3
The MnO/Al2O3 catalysts with different Ce content doping were prepared by an ultrasonic impregnation method, and the catalytic activity for NO oxidation removal was tested in a fixed-bed quartz tube furnace. Simultaneously, the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), full-automatic physical-chemical adsorption instrument, and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) to analyze the effect of Ce addition on the adsorption capacity and catalytic activity. Experimental results validated that the activity of the MnO/Al2O3 catalyst was greatly promoted with Ce addition. According to the characterization results, it could be concluded that Ce doping led to significant changes in the crystalline phase on the catalyst surface, which increased the relative content of surface lattice oxygen and promoted the catalytic oxidation of NO. By observing the physical properties of the surface and analyzing the surface elements of the catalyst, it could be inferred that a manganese-cerium solid solution was formed on the surface of Mn0.4Ce0.05/Al. Moreover, Ce addition increased the catalyst pore size, which enhanced the adsorption and contact of NO and O2 with the active sites on the catalyst surface, and reduced the resistance of the reactants during internal diffusion. All these variations assigned to Mn0.4Ce0.05/Al were favorable for the catalytic oxidation of NO.
Electrochemical Determination of Diclofenac by Using ZIF-67/g-C3N4 Modified Electrode
A facial differential pulse voltammetric procedure using a glassy carbon electrode modified with zeolite imidazolate framework-67/graphitic carbon nitride (ZIF-67/g-C3N4) for the diclofenac (DCF) determination is demonstrated. ZIF-67/g-C3N4 with different mass ratios of the components was synthesized in a self-assembly process. The obtained materials were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX-mapping, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. The peak current varies linearly with the DCF concentration in the range of 0.2–2.2 μmol·L−1 and has a detection limit of 0.071 μmol·L−1. The modified electrode exhibits acceptable repeatability, reproducibility, and selectivity towards DCF. The proposed electrode allows determining DCF in human urine without pretreatment, and the results are comparable with those determined with HPLC.