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Adsorption Science & Technology publishes original research and review articles on the topic of adsorption.
Chief Editor, Dr Ashleigh Fletcher, is based at the University of Strathclyde, UK. Her current research focuses on adsorption processes.
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Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan/Bentonite Composites for Cr (VI) Removal from Aqueous Solutions
Chitosan/bentonite composites (CSBT) prepared by physical gelation were tested for the adsorption of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions in this work. The composites were prepared at a mass ratio from 2 : 1 to 1 : 2, and a composite of 1 : 1 was found to be most suitable for efficient Cr (VI) removal. The influencing parameters, including temperature, adsorbent dose, and pH, were statistically optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) for the removal of Cr (VI). The pH was found to be the limiting factor during the adsorption process, and under the optimal conditions, namely, adsorbent dose of 400 mg/L, , and temperature of 298 K, 87.61% Cr (VI) would be removed expectantly. The mechanism of Cr (VI) removal by CSBT was discussed, and the protonation of amino groups on chitosan followed by the combination of -NH3+ and anionic hexavalent chromium was the primary driving force. In addition, the removal of Cr (VI) onto CSBT was monolayer adsorption with a maximum adsorption capacity of 133.85 mg/g by the Langmuir isotherm. CSBT follows a pseudosecond-order kinetic model, and within 1.5 h, adsorption was observed to reach equilibrium. The calculated thermodynamic functions clarified that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous below 312.60 K. CSBT could be regenerated after desorption by 0.5 mol/L NaOH solutions and exhibited superior reusability after six cycles. This study demonstrated composites of chitosan/bentonite as eco-friendly bioadsorbents for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous environments.
Adsorption Performance of La(III) and Y(III) on Orange Peel: Impact of Experimental Variables, Isotherms, and Kinetics
To alleviate the environmental problem associated with rare earth wastewater, this research applied waste orange peel (OP) for the adsorption of La(III) and Y(III) from aqueous solution. The adsorption properties of orange peel are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the participation of hydroxyl and other oxygen-containing groups that promote the physical-chemical interaction is verified. Batch adsorption results suggest that orange peel possesses a satisfactory adsorption performance for La(III) and Y(III). The optimal adsorption conditions were obtained at pH of 6, temperature of 40°C, appropriate dosage of 2 g/L and 3 g/L, contact time of 30 min, and initial ion concentration of 32 mg/L. Under the same condition, adsorption performance of La(III) is better than that of Y(III). The experimental data is well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model with and the minimum standard error values. Equilibrium results show that Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of La(III) and Y(III) onto orange peel is up to 37.61 and 31.10 mg/g. The fitting results of kinetics prove that the adsorption process of La(III) and Y(III) follows the pseudosecond-order model. Thus, natural orange peel as a recyclable biosorbent has potential economic and applicative benefits to remove La(III) and Y(III) from aqueous solutions.
Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue and Antibacterial Activity of Mesoporous TiO2-SBA-15 Nanocomposite Based on Rice Husk
Concerns have been increased regarding the existence of pollutants in environmental water resources and their risks to the ecosystem and human society. TiO2 photocatalyst is considered as an effective photocatalyst to remove the pollutants. Herein, the mesoporous TiO2-SBA-15 was prepared using the rice husk extract as the silica source. The fabricated nanocomposites were characterized using FTIR, small and wide angle XRD, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis, BET surface area analysis, and HRTEM. The photocatalytic efficiency of the composites for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) has been evaluated under UV irradiation. Interestingly, due to the excellent dispersion of TiO2 on the wall of SBA-15 and good hydrophilicity, the nanocomposites displayed a good catalytic activity. The higher photodegradation performance was achieved by the composite containing 10 wt% TiO2 by which the MB was fully degraded within 15-20 min of irradiation. Besides, TiO2-SBA-15 could effectively inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These results offer a practical and economic approach in the environmental management industries.
The Effect of Proton and Arsenic Concentration on As(III) Removal by Hematite and Kaolin Complexes
With the intensification of human activities, arsenite (As(III)) pollutant from the soil and ground water has been a threat to human health, and the problem gradually becomes the focus of attention. In this study, the effects of several environment factors on As(III) removal ability of complex minerals are determined through the analysis of mineralogical characteristics of the complex synthesis of hematite and kaolin, using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and specific surface area. In the results, the XRD patterns of hematite and kaolin complexes indicate that the loading covers up some characteristic peaks of minerals in kaolin, which can be that hematite loading decrease the order of structure for some minerals. With increasing Fe content, the hydroxyl sites gradually increase, therefore strengthening the As(III) removal ability of complexes. With increasing the As(III) concentration, the removal ratios of kaolin on As(III) almost keep unchanged and that of complexes show no obvious regularity. However, with the pH increasing, the removal ratios of all samples keep increasing. Furthermore, the increasing of As(III) concentration and pH both improve As(III) removal amount significantly, especially for As(III) concentration. In addition, there is no forming of new mineral through it as observed by XRD. Therefore, hematite loading can promote the As(III) removal on kaolin through adsorption in different environments, which can provide a better method for the remediation of arsenic pollution.
Effective Removal of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solutions Using Magnetic Nanocomposite: Synthesis, Characterization, and Equilibrium Study
In this work, magnetized activated Juniperus procera leaves (Fe3O4@AJPL) were successfully prepared via chemical activation of JPL and in situ coprecipitation with Fe3O4. A Fe3O4@AJPL nanocomposite was successfully applied for the elimination of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous media. The prepared Fe3O4@AJPL adsorbent was characterized by SEM, EDX, TEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, and BET surface area analyses. The BET surface area and pore size of the Fe3O4@AJPL nanocomposite were found to be 38.44 m2/g and 10.6 nm, respectively. The XRD and FTIR results indicated the formation of a Fe3O4@AJPL nanocomposite. Different parameters, such as pH of the solution (3–8), adsorbent dosage (10–100 mg), temperature (25–45°C), contact time (5-240 min), and initial MG concentrations (20–350 mg/L), for the elimination of the MG dye using Fe3O4@AJPL were optimized and found to be 7, 50 mg, 45°C, 120 min, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The nonlinear isotherm and kinetic studies exhibited a better fitting to second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 318.3 mg/g at 45°C, which was highly superior to the previously reported magnetic nanocomposite adsorbents. EDX analyses confirmed the presence of nitrogen on the Fe3O4@AJPL surface after MG adsorption. The calculated thermodynamic factors indicated endothermic and spontaneous processes. The desorption of MG dye from Fe3O4@AJPL was performed using a solution of 90% ethanol. Finally, it could be concluded that the designed Fe3O4@AJPL magnetic nanocomposite will be a cost-effective and promising adsorbent for the elimination of MG from aqueous media.
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Enhance the Tolerance and Remediation Potential of Bacillus spp. against Heavy Metal Stress
Nanoparticles and bacteria have received a great attention worldwide due to their ability to remove heavy metals (HMs) from wastewater. The current study is aimed at finding the interaction of HMs-resistance strains (Bacillus cereus and Lysinibacillus macroides) with different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mg/L) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and how they would cope with HM stress (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Cu). The growth rate and tolerance potential of bacteria were increased at lowered concentrations (5 and 10 mg/L) of ZnO NPs against HMs while it was unaffected at higher concentrations of ZnO NPs. These findings were confirmed by minimum inhibition zone and higher zinc solubilization at lower concentrations of ZnO NPs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that higher concentrations of ZnO NP increased HM accumulation in bacteria cells which had a significant impact on bacterial morphology and caused pores in bacterial membrane while in the case of lower concentrations, the cell remained unaffected. These results were further supported by the less production of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents at lower concentrations of ZnO NPs against heavy metal stress. This study suggested that synergistic treatment of Bacillus spp. with lower concentrations of ZnO NPs enhances the tolerance potential and significantly reduces the HM toxicity.