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Advances in Urology
Volume 2008, Article ID 459630, 3 pages
Review Article

Vesicoureteral Reflux: Where Have We Been, Where Are We Now, and Where Are We Going?

School of Medicine, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA

Received 3 April 2008; Accepted 11 August 2008

Academic Editor: Walid A. Farhat

Copyright © 2008 Gordon A. McLorie. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We present a retrospective review of the scientific and clinical advances, extending over four decades, which have linked vesicoureteral reflux, with renal injury, and urinary tract infection. We have traced the original studies, coupled with advances in technology which led to the awareness, and ability to detect and diagnose the problems early in childhood. These advances progressed through clinical studies which defined the epidemiology of both reflux and urinary tract infection. Along with these diagnostic advances, there were numerous surgical developments, which allowed progressive improvements in the outcomes and effectiveness of a variety of treatment modalities. All of this literature leads us to the current era, when several clinical trials are currently underway in an effort to more fully define the most efficacious and safe methods to treat vesicoureteral reflux and associated urinary tract infection.