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Advances in Urology provides a forum for urologists, nephrologists, and basic scientists working in the field of urology. The journal publishes articles focusing on the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs.
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The Importance of Follow-Up and Evaluation of Intraoperative Findings to Determine Surgical Indications for Retractile Testis
Objectives. Ascending testis or acquired undescended testis develops in approximately 30% of cases of retractile testis, and orchiopexy is recommended for these cases. This study aimed at assessing the intraoperative anatomical findings of ascending testis and acquired undescended testis in search of better management for retractile testis. Methods. We retrospectively collected data of patients with confirmed diagnosis of retractile testis between February 2012 and November 2021. Orchiopexy was performed for cases with ascending testis and for patients with increasing difference of right and left testicular volume. The site of gubernaculum attachment and patent processus vaginalis were evaluated during surgery. Results. A total of 119 testes in 71 patients with retractile testis were included in this study. Sixteen retractile testes in 12 patients (17%) underwent orchiopexy. The weight at birth was significantly higher, and bilateral retractile testes were significantly more common in the follow-up group than in the surgical intervention group. In the surgical intervention group, the abnormal site of gubernaculum attachment was found in 12 out of 16 testes (75%), and patent PV was found in nine out of sixteen testes (56%). Sites of gubernaculum attachment in testes with patent PV were significantly higher than in sites with closed processus vaginalis, and all testes with patent processus vaginalis had abnormal site of gubernaculum attachment. Conclusion. Patients with ascending testis and acquired undescended testis have clinical features and intraoperative abnormal findings similar to a cryptorchidism. Therefore, our surgical indication for retractile testis is considered appropriate.
A Randomized Controlled Study of Robot-Assisted versus 3D Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Carcinoma Prostate
Background and Objectives. The objectives of this study are to report a single institute and single surgeon outcomes comparing 3D laparoscopic radical prostatectomy vs robotically assisted technique in the form of preoperative, intraoperative, or postoperative parameters. Materials and Methods. A prospective randomized comparative study was performed from 1st January 2020 to 30th June 2021. All patients included were diagnosed with localized/locally advanced ca prostate. 60 patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomized into 2 groups. Groups A and B included patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and 3D laparoscopic transperitoneal radical prostatectomy, respectively. Various demographic, intraoperative, postoperative, and follow-up parameters were collected. Outcomes were evaluated in the form of the trifecta (continence, potency, and BCR-free status) and pentafecta rates (trifecta with no perioperative complications and negative surgical margins) in between the two groups. Results. The mean operative time in Group A was 137.83 mins ± 17.27 compared to 148.20 mins ± 26.16 in Group B. Trifecta rates in Group A and Group B were 43.3%, 63.3%, and 76.6% and 40%, 53.3%, and 70% at 1, 3, and 6 months. Pentafecta rates in Group A and Group B were 36.6%, 53.3%, and 70% and 33.3%, 40%, and 53.3% at 1, 3, and 6 months. Complication rates were 10% in Group A and 13.3% in Group B, respectively. Only one patient in our study (Group B) had a positive surgical margin. Conclusions. We conclude from our comparative study, that both robot-assisted and 3D laparoscopic transperitoneal radical prostatectomy are feasible and efficacious treatment modalities for achieving acceptable trifecta and pentafecta rates in managing ca prostate with earlier continence and shorter urethrovesical anastomosis time in the robotic arm.
Fast Track Surgery as the Latest Multimodal Strategy of Enhanced Recovery after Urethroplasty
Fast track surgery (FTS), as well as ERAS (enhanced recovery after surgery/rapid recovery programs), is the latest multimodal treatment strategy, designed to reduce the disability period and improve the medical care quality. The study aims to analyze the enhanced recovery protocol effectiveness in a comparative study of elective urethral stricture surgery. A prospective study included 54 patients with an established diagnosis of urethral stricture in 2019-2020 in the urological hospital of the Irkutsk City Clinical Hospital No. 1. All 54 patients have completed the study. There were two groups of patients FTS-group (group II, n = 25) and standard group (group I, n = 29). In terms of preoperative parameters, the comparison groups have statistical homogeneity. The comparative intergroup efficacy analysis of the treatment based on the criteria established in the study demonstrated good treatment results for 5 (17.2%) patients of group I and 20 (80%) patients of group II (). The overall efficacy of urethroplasty surgeries, regardless of the treatment protocol, was comparable (86.2% vs 92%; ), as well as the likelihood of relapse within two years (). The predictors of recurrence were technical complications and urethral suture failure (OR 4.36; 95% CI 1.6; 7.11; ). The FTS protocol reduced the treatment period () and decreased the severity of postoperative pain (). The use of the “fast track surgery” protocol in urethroplasty with generally similar treatment results makes it possible to achieve a better functional and objective condition of patients in the postoperative period due to less pain, shorter catheterization, and hospitalization.
A Potential Protective Effect of Alcohol Consumption in Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus: A Case-Control Study
Introduction and Objectives. Lichen sclerosus (LSc) is a chronic inflammatory process of the skin characterized by its unique histological features. It affects men and women of all ages, mainly in the anogenital area. The etiologies and exact pathophysiology are not well-known; however, LSc can be considered a precursor to male genital squamous cell carcinoma. We aim, through this case-control study, to potentially associate genital LSc with risk factors and certain patient characteristics in Lebanese adult males. Materials and Methods. A nested case-control study design was chosen. Subjects enrolled were adult male patients who had a circumcision between January 2010 and December 2020 at our university hospital, with a confirmed LSc diagnosis on pathology. Cases were matched with controls by age with a ratio of 1 : 1, all of whom were circumcised and had a negative pathology report. Data collection consisted of sociodemographic, behavioral, and past medical and familial history characteristics. Results. A total of 94 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 49.81 (±22.92) in the group of men with LSc. No significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics (age and BMI) were found between the two compared groups. Smoking cannot predict LSc as opposed to alcohol consumption, which we found to be a protective factor against the appearance of LSc (). Men with LSc had significantly higher rates of diabetes () and hypertension (). No associations were found between LSc and the presenting chief complaints, family history of LSc, and past penile trauma. Conclusion. In this study, we were able to compare multiple variables between 47 circumcised patients diagnosed with LSc and a control group. We found that LSc patients showed higher rates of diabetes and hypertension. A potential protective effect of alcohol consumption is to be explored in future projects with bigger sample sizes and higher statistical powers.
Evaluation of Double-Faced Tubularized Preputial Flap versus Duckett’s Procedure for Repair of Penoscrotal Hypospadias with Significant Penile Curvature: A Comparative Study
Background. Proximal hypospadias, with significant curvature, is one of the most challenging anomalies. Great diversity and a large number of procedures described over the last 4 decades confirmed the fact that no single procedure has been universally accepted or successful. So, the aim of this study is to evaluate double-faced tubularized preputial flap (DFPF) versus transverse tubularized inner preputial flap (Duckett’s procedure) as regards surgical outcomes, complications rate, and cosmetic results for repair of penoscrotal hypospadias with chordee. Patients and Methods. This was a prospective comparative study on 144 children with primary penoscrotal hypospadias with moderate or severe chordee, conducted at New Damietta and Assuit hospitals, Al-Azhar University, from March 2016 to March 2022. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups; group A (n = 72) underwent DFPF, and group B (n = 72) underwent Duckett’s procedure. Results. No significant difference was identified as regards demographic data. The follow-up period ranged from 20 to 66 months (mean of 28 months after DFPF and 31 months after Duckett’s repair), and the complication rate was 20.1% (29 of 144 children). There were statistically significant differences between the two groups as regards the urethral stricture, penile rotation, and total complication rate. HOSE score was adopted for assessment of surgical outcomes, urine stream, and cosmetic results. Conclusions. The DFPF technique is feasible and reliable for one-stage repair of penoscrotal hypospadias with chordee and can be considered as a good option as it ensures better surgical and cosmetic outcomes with lower incidence of complications.
Outcomes of Top-Down Holmium Laser Enucleation of Prostate for Recurrent/Residual Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: One-Year Follow-Up
Introduction and Objective. We aimed to evaluate urinary functional outcomes of top-down holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) in patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) compared to patients with primary BPH. Materials and Methods. We carried out a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent top-down HoLEP for the management of recurrent BPH at our institution. Patients who had previously undergone TURP were assigned to group I, while those with no history of prostate surgery were allocated to group II. Preoperative clinical characteristics, enucleation time, resected tissue weight, morcellation time, energy used, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded and statistically analyzed. Patients were followed up postoperatively at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The evaluation included the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life assessment (QoL), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine test (PVR), and continence status. Results. Two hundred and sixty-nine patients were included in this study. Group I consisted of 68 patients with recurrent BPH, while group II included 201 patients. There were no statistically significant differences in preoperative characteristics between both groups. The median enucleation time for group I (67.5 min (25–200)) was not significantly longer than that for group II (60 min (19–165) ()). Operative outcomes, including morcellation time, resected weight, catheter duration, and hospital stay, were comparable between both groups. At 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, all urinary functional outcomes showed significant improvement, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. At 3 months’ follow-up, two patients in group I and three patients in group II experienced stress urinary incontinence (SUI). At the last follow-up visit, one patient from group I presented with persistent SUI. Conclusions. For managing recurrent and nonrecurrent cases of BPH, top-down HoLEP is safe with comparable urinary functional outcomes. Patients with a history of previous prostate surgery can be counselled that their prior transurethral procedure does not reduce the benefits of HoLEP.