Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Targeted Therapy in Treatment of Patients with Localised Clear-Cell Renal Cell CarcinomaRead the full article
Advances in Urology provides a forum for urologists, nephrologists, and basic scientists working in the field of urology. The journal publishes articles focusing on the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs.
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Epidemiological and Diagnostic Aspects of Bladder Bilharziomas in the Urology Department of Idrissa Pouye General Hospital (HOGIP)
Objective. The aim of our study is to assess the diagnostic aspects of bladder bilharzioma in the Urology Department of Idrissa Pouye General Hospital (Senegal). Materials and Methods. It is a descriptive study from January 2013 to December 2018. The patients included in the study were those who had anatomopathological examination of bladder biopsy that showed a schistosomiasis pseudotumor of the bladder. The variables studied were sociodemographic, clinical symptoms, imaging findings, histology, and treatment. The data have been saved and analyzed by the 2013 Excel software. Results. Thirteen patients were included in our study. The average age was 27 ± 12.1 years. Sex ratio was 1.6. The majority of the patients were from the northern part of Senegal. Hematuria was the main symptom for all the patients. Cystoscopy was performed for all the patients and showed 5 granulomas and 8 fibrocalcic polyps. A transurethral resection of the bladder was performed, and treatment with praziquantel (40 mg/kg of bodyweight) has been carried out. One patient presented precancerous lesions such as metaplasia and dysplasia of the bladder mucosa. After a median follow-up of 40 months (6–57 months), ten patients had a favorable clinical and endoscopic outcome. Conclusion. Granulomas and fibrocalcic polyps of the bladder mucosa are, respectively, confused with squamous cell carcinoma and bladder lithiasis in endemic areas of schistosomiasis. Good cystoscopy interpretation can provide the diagnosis of bladder bilharzioma and start the treatment.
A Vaginal Inlay for Reduction of Stress Urinary Incontinence: Outcome of a Randomized Clinical Trial and Four User Acceptance Studies
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial and four postmarket user acceptance investigations were carried out to document the safety, performance, and user acceptance of Efemia Bladder Support, a novel vaginal inlay for the temporary reduction of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The clinical investigation enrolled 97 women diagnosed with SUI, randomized 3 : 1 to either treatment or standard care (control). The primary endpoint was reduction of urine leakage, measured as change in pad weight baseline week compared with treatment week. Secondary endpoints were treatment success, calculated as the percentage of subjects with >70% reduction in pad weight, reduction in incontinence episodes, and quality of life (QoL). 75 women (77%) completed the clinical investigation. No serious adverse events occurred. The treatment group reached a 55% () mean reduction of total leakage compared to the control arm. A subanalysis, involving only leakage during provocation testing (coughing and jumping), showed a 67% () mean reduction of leakage. No significant effect on QoL could be observed. 51% of the women answered “yes” to the question if they would use the device to reduce SUI. The user acceptance of the device was further investigated in four postmarket studies, using an improved device design with a slimmer centerpiece and a thinner handle, while keeping the effect achieving parts of the device unchanged. An average of 74% of the 102 participants in the postmarket studies reported that they were likely to continue using Efemia. The highest user satisfaction was seen in the two studies evaluating the use of Efemia during exercise, where 83% and 88% of the women were likely to continue using Efemia. It can be concluded that Efemia is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective alternative for reducing SUI, both in everyday life and during physical exercise.
Characteristics of Obstetric and Iatrogenic Urogenital Fistulas in Burkina Faso: A Cross-Sectional Study
Objective. To compare the sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of obstetric urogenital fistulas (OF) and iatrogenic urogenital fistulas (IF) treated in seven centers in Burkina Faso. Material and Methods. We carried out a cross-sectional study over a seven years’ period (January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2016). We considered as iatrogenic all urogenital fistulas (UGF) occurred after elective caesarean section, gynecologic surgery (hysterectomy, myomectomy, and prolapse repair), or induced abortion. UGF following vaginal delivery after prolonged labor without obstetric maneuvers or caesarean section were considered as obstetric. UGF caused by other mechanisms (emergency caesarian section, congenital, and traumatic) were excluded from this study. The statistical analysis was carried out using version 14 of the STATA software. A logistic regression model was used to compare the two groups. Results. 310 cases of UGF were included. IF accounted for 25.8% (n = 80) versus 74.2% (n = 230) for OF. The median age was 35 years for IF and 35.38 years for OF. The vesicovaginal fistulas were predominant (74.5%) in the two groups. All circumferential fistulas were found in the OF group. OF were frequently associated with residence in rural areas (OR = 1.8; CI = [1.05–3.1]), low level of education (OR = 5.4; CI = [2.3–12.9]), and a height under 158 cm (OR = 3.4 CI = [1.7–6.6]). Vaginal sclerosis was less common among IF (OR = 2.2; CI = [1–4.6]). The failure of surgical treatment after 3 months was more associated with OF (OR = 4.7; CI = [1.1–20.5]). Conclusion. OF were the most common, frequently affecting short women living in rural area and with low level of schooling. Fistulas were also more severe in the OF group. IF gave better results after surgical repair.
Risk Factors of Ureteral Stenosis in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Retrospective Study in National Referral Hospital in Indonesia
Ureteral stenosis is one of the most common urological complications following kidney transplantations. It is occurred in 2–10% of patients and poses a significant problem to the patients as it may lead to permanent damage to renal damage. Identification of risk factors is important to prevent the incidence of ureteral stenosis. Thus, we aim to determine the risk factors of ureteral stenosis in the Indonesian population. This is a retrospective analysis of 487 kidney transplant patients performed in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between 2014 and 2018. We collected and compared donor and recipient demography data in recipients who developed ureteral stenosis and recipients who did not develop ureteral stenosis. Ureteral stenosis was defined as the presence of hydronephrosis from ultrasound and increased number of serum creatinine. The overall incidence of ureteral stenosis post-kidney transplantation in our center is 6.6% (32 from 487 patients) from January 2014 until June 2018. We found that older donor and recipient age more frequent in developing ureteral stenosis post-kidney transplantation ( < 0.001). We also found that donors with number of arteries more than 2 ( < 0.001) and prolonged warm ischemic time ( < 0.05) are more frequently to develop ureteral stenosis post-kidney transplantation. There is no association between type II diabetes mellitus and hypertension with ureteral stenosis in this study. Donor age, recipient age, donor number of arteries more than 2, and prolonged warm ischemia time are associated with ureteral stenosis after kidney transplantation.
Are Technology-Driven Mobile Phone Applications (Apps) the New Currency for Digital Stent Registries and Patient Communication: Prospective Outcomes Using Urostentz App
Background. Forgotten ureteral stents (FUS) and stent-related symptoms (SRS) lead to increased postprocedural emergency department visits and add to the psychological and financial burden of the patients. Purpose. To review the usage and benefits of ureteral stent tracking and symptom monitoring through a single smartphone-based application (App) platform with 2-way clinician-patient communication. This study also compared the features with other smartphone apps used for stent tracking. Materials and Methods. 100 patients were included in this single-center prospective study conducted between September 2019 and December 2019. Patients who had metallic or long-term indwelling stents, noncomprehensible patients, and those not willing to share their data were excluded from the study. Results. Of 100 patients, 92 downloaded the Urostentz application, and 72 (78.2%) patients answered the pictorial symptom questionnaire. Symptom score analysis suggested that 62 patients (86.1%) had stent-related symptoms of which 3 required readmission and underwent early stent removal. The mean stent duration was 17.2 + 3.5 days (range: 11–23 days), with 69% of patients having their stent removed on the scheduled date and 25% of patients requesting a change of their appointment via the App. Conclusion. In this study, there was no case of FUS encountered. The “Urostentz” App is a freely available patient safety stent tracking application that provides a secure and simplified interface, which can significantly reduce the incidence of FUS and provide digital remote assistance in the management of stent-related symptoms.
CK20 and CK5/6 Immunohistochemical Staining of Urothelial Neoplasms: A Perspective
Cytokeratins belong to the family of intermediate filaments. They are expressed in a highly specific manner in epithelial cells where they play a crucial role in the integrity and mechanical stability of the cells. Several types of cytokeratins have been described in normal as well as neoplastic urothelium. In the case of urothelial neoplasms expression of CK20 and CK5/6 has been shown in several studies to have diagnostic and prognostic implications. Thus, low-grade urothelial carcinoma manifests CK expression limited to the umbrella cells, while high-grade tumors usually have an expression in the entire thickness of the urothelium except for the basal layer. CK5/6 expression on the other hand is expressed in the basal cells in all low-grade and some high-grade urothelial carcinomas. Diffuse CK20 staining accompanied by loss of CK5/6-positive basal layer is usually associated with aggressive clinical behavior. Double staining of the slides for these cytokeratins may facilitate proper interpretation and correlation.