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Advances in Urology provides a forum for urologists, nephrologists, and basic scientists working in the field of urology. The journal publishes articles focusing on the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs.
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Critical Assessment of Single-Use Ureteroscopes in an In Vivo Porcine Model
Introduction and Objectives. In recent years, there has been increasing utilization of single-use ureteroscopes albeit with few studies comparing the performance characteristics between these devices. We compared two commonly utilized single-use ureteroscopes in a porcine model. Methods. A female pig was placed under general anesthesia and positioned supine, and retrograde access to the renal collecting system was obtained. The LithoVue (Boston Scientific) and Uscope (Pusen Medical) were evaluated by three experienced surgeons, and each surgeon started with a new scope. The following parameters were compared between each ureteroscope: time for navigation to upper and lower pole calyces with and without implements (1.9 F basket, 200 μm laser fiber, and 365 μm laser fiber for upper only) in the working channel and subjective evaluations of maneuverability, irrigant flow through the scope, lever force, ergonomics, and scope optics. Results. Navigation to the lower pole calyx was significantly faster with LithoVue compared to Uscope when the working channel was empty (24.3 vs. 49.4 seconds, ) and with a 200 μm fiber (63.6 vs. 94.4 seconds, ), but not with the 1.9 F basket. Navigation to the upper pole calyx was similar for all categories except faster with LithoVue containing the 365 μm fiber (67.1 vs. 99.7 seconds, ). Subjective assessments of scope maneuverability to upper and lower pole calyces when the scope was empty and with implements favored LithoVue in all categories, as did assessments of irrigant flow, illumination, image quality, and field of view. Both scopes had similar scores of lever force and ergonomics. Conclusions. In an in vivo porcine model, the type of single-use ureteroscope employed affected the navigation times and subjective assessments of maneuverability and visualization. In all cases, LithoVue provided either equivalent or superior metrics than Uscope. Further clinical studies are necessary to determine the implications of these findings.
Microbiome within Primary Tumor Tissue from Renal Cell Carcinoma May Be Associated with PD-L1 Expression of the Venous Tumor Thrombus
Objective. To perform a proof of concept microbiome evaluation and PD-L1 expression profiling in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (cc-RCC) with associated tumor thrombus (TT). Methods. After IRB approval, six patients underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) with venous tumor thrombectomy (VTT). We collected fresh tissue specimens from normal adjacent, tumor, and thrombus tissues. We utilized RNA sequencing to obtain PD-L1 expression profiles and perform microbiome analysis. Statistical assessment was performed using Student’s t-test, chi-square, and spearman rank correlations using SPSS v25. Results. We noted the tumor thrombus to be mostly devoid of diverse microbiota. A large proportion of Staphylococcus epidermidus was detected and unknown if this is a surgical or postsurgical contaminant; however, it was noted more in the thrombus than other tissues. Microbiome diversity profiles were most abundant in the primary tumor compared to the thrombus or normal adjacent tissue. Differential expression of PD-L1 was examined in the tumor thrombus to the normal background tissue and noted three of the six subjects had a threshold above 2-fold. These three similar subjects had foreign microbiota that are typical residents of the oral microbiome. Conclusion. Renal tumors have more diverse microbiomes than normal adjacent tissue. Identification of resident oral microbiome profiles in clear-cell renal cancer with tumor thrombus provides a potential biomarker for thrombus response to PD-L1 inhibition.
Efficacy of Tamsulosin plus Tadalafil versus Tamsulosin as Medical Expulsive Therapy for Lower Ureteric Stones: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Introduction. Urolithiasis is one of the common disorder with which about 1/5th is found in the ureter, of which 2/3rd is seen in the lower ureter. Medical expulsive therapy is one of the routine modalities of treatment which uses various drugs acting on the ureter smooth muscle by different mechanism. We aim to compare the efficacy of combination vs. single drug. Methods. This randomized controlled trial was done in 176 consecutive patients over a period of six months (March 2019 to August 2019) in Department of Urology and Kidney Transplant Surgery, Tribhuvan University Teaching. Participants were divided into two groups (Group A, tamsulosin plus tadalafil, and Group B, tamsulosin) from computer-generated random numbers. Therapy was continued for a maximum of 3 weeks. Stone expulsion rate, time to stone expulsion, analgesic use, number of colic and emergency room visits for pain, early intervention, and adverse effects of drugs were recorded. Results. Among 176 patients who were enrolled in study, 7 were lost to follow-up, and 5 people required immediate intervention. There was a significant higher stone passage rate in group A than group B (64 vs. 50; ) and shorter expulsion time (1.66 vs. 2.32 weeks ) and less number of emergency room visits and colic episodes. No significant side effects were noted during study. Conclusion. Tamsulosin plus Tadalafil is more effective than tamsulosin with early passage of stone and decreased number of colic episodes and emergency visits without significant side effects for lower ureteric calculi of 5 mm to 10 mm.
Prospective Multicenter Open-Label One-Arm Trial Investigating a Pumpkin Seed, Isoflavonoids, and Cranberry Mix in Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Pilot Study
Phytotherapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) due to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is progressively demanded by patients and trusted by physicians. The aim was to assess the efficacy of a mix of pumpkin seed extract, soy germ isoflavonoids, and cranberry (Novex®) in the management of mild to moderate LUTS in BPH patients. Male patients aged ≥40 years, who had had mild to moderate LUTS for >6 months at screening, with no previous therapy or who are still symptomatic despite current use of alpha-blockers, were recruited. Exclusion criteria were an IPSS >19 and an age >80 years. The mixed compound was administered orally, daily, for 3 months. Patients were evaluated by means of IPSS, urological quality of life (uQoL) index, and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) at 3 visits: baseline (visit 1), 30 days (visit 2), and 90 days after treatment (visit 3). Among 163 screened patients, 128 patients (61.8 ± 9.9 years) were recruited. IPSS improved from 15 (Q1 : 12–Q3 : 17) in visit 1, to 11 (Q1 : 8–Q3 : 14) in visit 2, and to 9 (Q1 : 6–Q3 : 12) in visit 3 (). uQoL improved from 4 (3–4) in visit 1, to 3 (2–3) in visit 2, and to 2 (1–2) in visit 3 (). The patients had an IIEF-5 score of 15 (12–18.7) in visit 1, 15 (12–18) in visit 2, and 17 (13–19) in visit 3 ( visits 1 vs. 2, visits 2 vs. 3, and visits 1 vs. 3). Treating mild to moderate LUTS/BPH patients with Novex® might therefore relieve symptoms, improve the quality of life, and have a mild beneficial effect on erectile function.
Traumatic Bladder Ruptures: A Ten-Year Review at a Level 1 Trauma Center
Bladder rupture occurs in only 1.6% of blunt abdominopelvic trauma cases. Although rare, bladder rupture can result in significant morbidity if undiagnosed or inappropriately managed. AUA Urotrauma Guidelines suggest that urethral catheter drainage is a standard of care for both extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal bladder rupture regardless of the need for surgical repair. However, no specific guidance is given regarding the length of catheterization. The present study seeks to summarize contemporary management of bladder trauma at our tertiary care center, assess the impact of length of catheterization on bladder injuries and complications, and develop a protocol for management of bladder injuries from time of injury to catheter removal. A retrospective review was performed on 34,413 blunt trauma cases to identify traumatic bladder ruptures over the past 10 years (January 2008–January 2018) at our tertiary care facility. Patient data were collected including age, gender, BMI, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. The primary treatment modality (surgical repair vs. catheter drainage only), length of catheterization, and post-injury complications were also assessed. Review of our institutional trauma database identified 44 patients with bladder trauma. Mean age was 41 years, mean BMI was 24.8 kg/m2, 95% were Caucasian, and 55% were female. Motor vehicle collision (MVC) was the most common mechanism, representing 45% of total injuries. Other mechanisms included falls (20%) and all-terrain vehicle (ATV) accidents (13.6%). 31 patients had extraperitoneal injury, and 13 were intraperitoneal. Pelvic fractures were present in 93%, and 39% had additional solid organ injuries. Formal cystogram was performed in 59% on presentation, and mean time to cystogram was 4 hours. Gross hematuria was noted in 95% of cases. Operative management was performed for all intraperitoneal injuries and 35.5% of extraperitoneal cases. Bladder closure in operative cases was typically performed in 2 layers with absorbable suture in a running fashion. The intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal injuries managed operatively were compared, and length of catheterization (28 d vs. 22 d, ), time from injury to normal fluorocystogram (19.8 d vs. 20.7 d, ), and time from injury to repair (4.3 vs. 60.5 h, ) were not statistically different between cohorts. Patients whose catheter remained in place for greater than 14 days had prolonged time to initial cystogram (26.6 d vs. 11.5 d) compared with those whose foley catheter was removed within 14 days. The complication rate was 21% for catheters left more than 14 days while patients whose catheter remained less than 14 days experienced no complications. The present study provides a 10-year retrospective review characterizing the presentation, management, and follow-up of bladder trauma patients at our level 1 trauma center. Based on our findings, we have developed an institutional protocol which now includes recommendations regarding length of catheterization after traumatic bladder rupture. By providing specific guidelines for initial follow-up cystogram and foley removal, we hope to decrease patient morbidity from prolonged catheterization. Further study will seek to allow multidisciplinary trauma teams to standardize management, streamline care, and minimize complications for patients presenting with traumatic bladder injuries.
Nephrolithiasis and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Case-Control Study Evaluating Testosterone and Urinary Stone Metabolic Panels
Introduction. Both elevated testosterone and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been speculated as possible risk factors for kidney stone formation; however, the details of this potential relationship with regards to 24-hour urine metabolic panels and stone composition have not previously been characterized. Methods. A total of 74 PCOS patients were retrospectively identified and matched with a cohort of female stone formers at a 3 : 1 ratio (by age and BMI). All patients had 24-hour urinary metabolic panels and stone compositions. These groups were compared using Pearson chi-square and Student t-tests. Additionally, the PCOS group was differentiated based on free testosterone using multivariate analysis. Results. The case-control cohort showed that PCOS patients had significantly lower sodium excretion and hypernatriuria rates (28.9% vs 50.9%, ). The PCOS-testosterone cohort demonstrated that high testosterone patients had significantly higher citrate values and significantly lower odds of hypocitraturia (36.7% vs 54.2%, OR = 0.2, ). The high testosterone group also had higher sodium excretion with significantly higher odds of having hypernatriuria (40.0% vs 13.6%, OR = 13.3, ). No significant patterns were revealed based on stone composition analysis. Conclusions. Compared to healthy stone formers, PCOS patients did not demonstrate significant differences in 24-hour urine and stone composition values. Elevated free testosterone in PCOS patients has a significant association with higher urinary citrate and sodium values: findings that in and of themselves do not confirm the hypothesized increased risk of stone formation. This patient cohort may provide deeper insight into the interplay between androgens and stone formation; however, further study is needed to fully characterize the possible relationship between PCOS and stone formation.