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Advances in Urology
Volume 2008, Article ID 498614, 12 pages
Review Article

Anxiety in Children Undergoing VCUG: Sedation or No Sedation?

Department of Paediatrics, Starship Children's Hospital, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92024, Auckland, New Zealand

Received 9 January 2008; Accepted 14 May 2008

Academic Editor: Walid A. Farhat

Copyright © 2008 David W. Herd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Voiding cystourethrograms are distressing for children and parents. Nonpharmacological methods reduce distress. Pharmacological interventions for VCUG focus on sedation as well as analgesia, anxiolysis, and amnesia. Sedation has cost, time, and safety issues. Which agents and route should we use? Are we sure that sedation does not influence the ability to diagnose vesicoureteric reflux? Methods. Literature search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database. Review of comparative studies found. Results. Seven comparative studies including two randomised controlled trials were reviewed. Midazolam given orally (0.5-0.6 mg/kg) or intranasally (0.2 mg/kg) is effective with no apparent effect on voiding dynamics. Insufficient evidence to recommend other sedating agents was found. Deeper sedating agents may interfere with voiding dynamics. Conclusion. Midazolam reduces the VCUG distress, causes amnesia, and does not appear to interfere with voiding dynamics. Midazolam combined with simple analgesia is an effective method to reduce distress to children undergoing VCUG.