Table 1: Characteristics of studies reporting CKD and ESRD data for VUR.

StudyN (males)Mean length of F/U in years (range)% with reflux >/= grade 3Incidence of CKD (upper limit of GFR for CKD in mL/s per 1.73 m2)Incidence of ESRDPredictors of ESRD/CKD

Ardissino, J Urol, 2004 [21]322 (245)>595%N/A—CKD was an inclusion requirement56%Proteinuria, CrCl <0.67 mL/s/1.73 m2
Caione, BJU Int, 2004 [23]50 (42)6.3 (1–16)100%54% (1.3)0%Creatinine r >53 umol/L in the first year
Neild, BMC Neph, 2004 [24]44 (22)NRNot reported (NR)N/A—CKD was an inclusion requirementN/AProteinuria, GFR < CrCl <0.83 mL/s/1.73 m2
Lahdes-Vasama, NDT, 2006 [25]267 (58)37 (27–48)NR67% (1.5)9%Bilateral scarring
Mor, BJU Int, 2003 [26]100 (21)20–30NR1% (1.5)0NR
Silva, Ped Neph, 2006 [27]735 (208)6.3 (0.5–34)60% of renal units3.1% (<1.25)1.5%Hypertension
Silva, Ped Neph, 2006 [28]184 (69)6.5 (1.1–34)100%15%5.4%Bilateral VUR, grade V VUR, diagnosis before 1990, diagnosis at age >24 months