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Advances in Urology
Volume 2008, Article ID 513854, 7 pages
Review Article

Endoscopic Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux with Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid in Children

Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, 5445 Meridian Mark Road, Suite 420, Atlanta, GA 30342, USA

Received 8 January 2008; Accepted 14 May 2008

Academic Editor: Walid A. Farhat

Copyright © 2008 Wolfgang H. Cerwinka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. The goal of this review is to present current indications, injectable agents, techniques, success rates, complications, and potential future applications of endoscopic treatment for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children. Materials and Methods. The endoscopic method currently achieving one of the highest success rates is the double hydrodistention-implantation technique (HIT). This method employs dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer, which has been used in pediatric urology for over 10 years and may be at present the first choice injectable agent due to its safety and efficacy. Results. While most contemporary series report cure rates of greater than 85% for primary VUR, success rates of complicated cases of VUR may be, depending on the case, significantly lower. Endoscopic treatment offers major advantages to patients while avoiding potentially complicated open surgery. As the HIT method continues to be applied to complex cases of VUR and more outcome data become available, the indication for endoscopic treatment may exceed the scope of primary VUR. Conclusions. Endoscopic injection is emerging as the treatment of choice for VUR in children.