Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Urology
Volume 2008 (2008), Article ID 705958, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/705958
Review Article

Surveillance as an Option for the Treatment of Small Renal Masses

Department of Urology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, 3000 Leuven, Belgium

Received 22 April 2008; Accepted 13 July 2008

Academic Editor: J. Rubio

Copyright © 2008 S. Klaver et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Kouba, A. Smith, D. McRackan, E. M. Wallen, and R. S. Pruthi, “Watchful waiting for solid renal masses: insight into the natural history and results of delayed intervention,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 177, no. 2, pp. 466–470, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  2. I. H. Derweesh and A. C. Novick, “Small renal tumors: natural history, observation strategies and emerging modalities of energy based tumor ablation,” The Canadian Journal of Urology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1871–1879, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  3. A. J. Pantuck, A. Zisman, and A. S. Belldegrun, “The changing natural history of renal cell carcinoma,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 166, no. 5, pp. 1611–1623, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. C. T. Lee, J. Katz, W. Shi, H. T. Thaler, V. E. Reuter, and P. Russo, “Surgical management of renal tumors 4 cm. Or less in a contemporary cohort,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 730–736, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. A. Volpe, T. Panzarella, R. A. Rendon, M. A. Haider, F. I. Kondylis, and M. A. S. Jewett, “The natural history of incidentally detected small renal masses,” Cancer, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 738–745, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  6. R. A. Rendon, N. Stanietzky, T. Panzarella et al., “The natural history of small renal masses,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 164, no. 4, pp. 1143–1147, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. N. Fujimoto, A. Sugita, Y. Terasawa, and M. Kato, “Observations on the growth rate of renal cell carcinoma,” International Journal of Urology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 71–76, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. M. A. Bosniak, “Observation of small incidentally detected renal masses,” Seminars in Urologic Oncology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 267–272, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  9. M. A. Bosniak, B. A. Birnbaum, G. A. Krinsky, and J. Waisman, “Small renal parenchymal neoplasms: further observations on growth,” Radiology, vol. 197, no. 3, pp. 589–597, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  10. T. Oda, N. Miyao, A. Takahashi et al., “Growth rates of primary and metastatic lesions of renal cell carcinoma,” International Journal of Urology, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 473–477, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. W. Kassouf, A. G. Aprikian, M. Laplante, and S. Tanguay, “Natural history of renal masses followed expectantly,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 171, no. 1, pp. 111–113, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  12. M. J. Wehle, D. D. Thiel, S. P. Petrou, P. R. Young, I. Frank, and N. Karsteadt, “Conservative management of incidental contrast-enhancing renal masses as safe alternative to invasive therapy,” Urology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 49–52, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  13. M. Kato, T. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, Y. Terasawa, H. Sasano, and Y. Arai, “Natural history of small renal cell carcinoma: evaluation of growth rate, histological grade, cell proliferation and apoptosis,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 172, no. 3, pp. 863–866, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. G. W. A. Lamb, E. J. Bromwich, P. Vasey, and M. Aitchison, “Management of renal masses in patients medically unsuitable for nephrectomy—natural history, complications, and outcome,” Urology, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 909–913, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  15. R. D. Sowery and D. R. Siemens, “Growth characteristics of renal cortical tumors in patients managed by watchful waiting,” The Canadian Journal of Urology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 2407–2410, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. N. Chawla, P. L. Crispen, A. L. Hanlon, R. E. Greenberg, D. Y. T. Chen, and R. G. Uzzo, “The natural history of observed enhancing renal masses: meta-analysis and review of the world literature,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 175, no. 2, pp. 425–431, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. D. A. Kunkle, P. L. Crispen, D. Y. T. Chen, R. E. Greenberg, and R. G. Uzzo, “Enhancing renal masses with zero net growth during active surveillance,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 849–854, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. R. A. Rendon and M. A. S. Jewett, “Expectant management for the treatment of small renal masses,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 62–67, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  19. M. Remzi, D. Katzenbeisser, M. Waldert et al., “Renal tumour size measured radiologically before surgery is an unreliable variable for predicting histopathological features: benign tumours are not necessarily small,” BJU International, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 1002–1006, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  20. I. Frank, M. L. Blute, J. C. Cheville, C. M. Lohse, A. L. Weaver, and H. Zincke, “Solid renal tumors: an analysis of pathological features related to tumor size,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 170, no. 6, part 1, pp. 2217–2220, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. H. Van Poppel, L. Da Pozzo, W. Albrecht et al., “A prospective randomized EORTC intergroup phase 3 study comparing the complications of elective nephron-sparing surgery and radical nephrectomy for low-stage renal cell carcinoma,” European Urology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1606–1615, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  22. I. S. Gill, S. F. Matin, M. M. Desai et al., “Comparative analysis of laparoscopic versus open partial nephrectomy for renal tumors in 200 patients,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 64–68, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  23. B. Schlomer, R. S. Figenshau, Y. Yan, R. Venkatesh, and S. B. Bhayani, “Pathological features of renal neoplasms classified by size and symptomatology,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 176, no. 4, pp. 1317–1320, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. M. Remzi, M. Özsoy, H.-C. Klingler et al., “Are small renal tumors harmless? Analysis of histopathological features according to tumors 4 cm or less in diameter,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 176, no. 3, pp. 896–899, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  25. R. M. Hsu, D. Y. Chan, and S. S. Siegelman, “Small renal cell carcinomas: correlation of size with tumor stage, nuclear grade, and histologic subtype,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 182, no. 3, pp. 551–557, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  26. D. Minardi, G. Lucarini, R. Mazzucchelli et al., “Prognostic role of Fuhrman grade and vascular endothelial growth factor in pT1a clear cell carcinoma in partial nephrectomy specimens,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 174, no. 4, part 1, pp. 1208–1212, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. C. Campbell, A. C. Novick, B. Herts et al., “Prospective evaluation of fine needle aspiration of small, solid renal masses: accuracy and morbidity,” Urology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 25–29, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. C. B. Dechet, H. Zincke, T. J. Sebo et al., “Prospective analysis of computerized tomography and needle biopsy with permanent sectioning to determine the nature of solid renal masses in adults,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 169, no. 1, pp. 71–74, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. P. T. Johnson, L. N. Nazarian, R. I. Feld et al., “Sonographically guided renal mass biopsy: indications and efficacy,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 749–753, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  30. S. Permpongkosol, R. E. Link, S. B. Solomon, and L. R. Kavoussi, “Results of computerized tomography guided percutaneous ablation of renal masses with nondiagnostic pre-ablation pathological findings,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 463–467, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. A. Vasudevan, R. J. Davies, B. A. Shannon, and R. J. Cohen, “Incidental renal tumours: the frequency of benign lesions and the role of preoperative core biopsy,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 946–949, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  32. M. A. S. Jewett and M. Stöckle, “The motion: surveillance is an option for renal cancer,” European Urology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1363–1366, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. Y. Neuzillet, E. Lechevallier, M. Andre, L. Daniel, and C. Coulange, “Accuracy and clinical role of fine needle percutaneous biopsy with computerized tomography guidance of small (less than 4.0 cm) renal masses,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 171, no. 5, pp. 1802–1805, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  34. S. G. Silverman, Y. U. Gan, K. J. Mortele, K. Tuncali, and E. S. Cibas, “Renal masses in the adult patient: the role of percutaneous biopsy,” Radiology, vol. 240, no. 1, pp. 6–22, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  35. J.-J. Patard, “With increasing minimally invasive options for small renal tumours, it is time to develop patient-specific treatment strategies,” European Urology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 876–878, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  36. G. Li, M. Cuilleron, M. Cottier et al., “The use of MN/CA9 gene expression in identifying malignant solid renal tumors,” European Urology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 401–405, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. A. W. Levinson, L.-M. Su, D. Agarwal et al., “Long-term oncological and overall outcomes of percutaneous radio frequency ablation in high risk surgical patients with a solitary small renal mass,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 499–504, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  38. B. F. Schwartz, J. C. Rewcastle, T. Powell, C. Whelan, T. Manny, Jr., and J. C. Vestal, “Cryoablation of small peripheral renal masses: a retrospective analysis,” Urology, vol. 68, no. 1, supplement 1, pp. 14–18, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  39. D. S. Finley, S. Beck, G. Box et al., “Percutaneous and laparoscopic cryoablation of small renal masses,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 492–498, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed