Comprehensive Management of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma
(a) Access for a right retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical
nephrectomy (LRN). A 10- to 15-mm incision is made below and medial to the
tip of the 12th rib. (b) The flank muscles are pierced with a blunt-tipped
instrument followed by finger dissection and development of the retroperitoneum
space to permit trocar placement. (c) Trocar placement for a right
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