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Advances in Urology
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 826725, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/826725
Review Article

Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy: Oncologic Outcomes and Management of Distal Ureter; Review of the Literature

Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA

Received 6 May 2008; Revised 7 August 2008; Accepted 15 September 2008

Academic Editor: Norm D. Smith

Copyright © 2009 Andre Berger and Amr Fergany. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LNU) is being increasingly performed at several centers across the world. We review oncologic outcomes after LNU procedure and the techniques for the management of distal ureter. Materials and Methods. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed on the oncological outcomes and management of distal ureter associated with LNU for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Results and Discussion. LNU for upper tract TCC is performed pure laparoscopically (LNU) or hand-assisted (HALNU). The management of the distal ureter is still debated. LNU appears to have superior perioperative outcomes when compared to open surgery. Intermediate term oncologic outcomes after LNU are comparable to open nephroureterectomy (ONU). Conclusions. Excision of the distal ureter and bladder cuff during nephroureterectomy remains controversial. Intermediate term oncologic outcomes for LNU compare well with ONU. Initial long-term oncologic outcomes are encouraging. Prospective randomized comparison between LNU and open surgery is needed to define the role of these modalities in the current context.