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Advances in Urology
Volume 2010, Article ID 871356, 8 pages
Research Article

Coordinated Increased Expression of Cyclooxygenase2 and Nuclear Factor 𝜅 B Is a Steady Feature of Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis

1Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Patras, 26504 Rion, Greece
2Department of Urology, General Hospital of Nikaia, 18543 Peiraeus, Greece
3Department of Anatomy and Histology-Embryology, Medical School, University of Patras, 26504 Rion, Greece
4Department of Pathology, Aegion General Hospital, 25100 Aegion, Greece
5Department of Microbiology, General Hospital of Nikaia, 18543 Peiraeus, Greece

Received 7 June 2010; Accepted 15 July 2010

Academic Editor: Douglas S. Scherr

Copyright © 2010 Stylianos Kontos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. The inescapable relationship between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis has long been established. Our objective was to investigate COX-2 and NF- 𝜅 B immunohistochemical expression in a large series of normal epithelium and bladder carcinomas. Methods. Immunohistochemical methodology was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from urinary bladder carcinomas of 140 patients (94 males and 46 females with bladder carcinomas). Results. COX-2 expression is increased in the cytoplasm of bladder cells, during loss of cell differentiation ( 𝑟 s = 0 . 6 1 , 𝑃 - v a l u e < . 0 0 1 ) and in muscle invasive carcinomas ( 𝑃 - v a l u e < . 0 0 1 ). A strong positive association between tumor grade and nuclear expression of NF 𝜅 B has been established. A positive correlation between COX-2 and nuclear NF 𝜅 B immunoreactivity was observed. Conclusions. The possible coordinated upregulation of NF 𝜅 B and COX-2, during bladder carcinogenesis, indicates that agents inhibitors of these two molecules may represent a possible new treatment strategy, by virtue of their role in bladder carcinogenesis.