Table 1: Summary of conservative therapy trials.

Study 𝑁 Age, yTreatmentStudy designStudy durationEfficacy measuresEfficacy outcomes

Alewijnse et al. 2003 [32]129Mean, 55.6PFMT alone (control; 𝑛 = 3 2 )
PFMT + reminders ( 𝑛 = 2 9 )
PFMT + reminder + patient education guide ( 𝑛 = 3 4 )
PFMT + reminder + patient education guide + counseling ( 𝑛 = 3 4 )
Randomized, controlled, open label12 mosSelf-administered questionnaires; diariesOverall 75% cured or improved at 12 mos
Overall reduction in number of SUI episodes in all groups from mean 23/wk to 8/wk; 𝑃 < . 0 0 1
Efficacy between all treatment groups, 𝑃 = N S

Aukee et al. 2004 [33]35Mean, 49.4, 51.4
Range, 31–69
PFMT alone (control; 𝑛 = 1 9 )
PFMT+ biofeedback, with at-home EMG training device ( 𝑛 = 1 6 )
Randomized, controlled, open label12 mosEMG-evaluated pelvic floor muscle activity; need for surgical intervention after conservative treatment; patient assessment using leakage index (based on 13 types of physical exertion that may trigger SUI episodes)Nonoperated EMG results:
PFMT, 𝑃 = . 0 2
PFMT+ biofeedback, 𝑃 = . 0 0 5
Treatment failure (surgery), 𝑛 = 1 4
Only nonoperated biofeedback group achieved significant reduction in leakage index, 𝑃 = . 0 0 5

Janssen et al. 2001 [34]530Mean, 47.8PFMT, group sessions ( 𝑛 = 4 0 4 )
PFMT, individual sessions ( 𝑛 = 1 2 6 )
Randomized, open label12Written questionnaires; diaries; patient exercise formsReduction in number of SUI episodes versus baseline:
Group, 𝑃 < . 0 0 1
Individual, 𝑃 < . 0 0 1
Group versus individual, 𝑃 = N S

Abbreviations: EMG, electromyography; NS, not significant; PFMT, pelvic floor muscle training; SUI, stress urinary incontinence.