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Advances in Urology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 639479, 9 pages
Research Article

New Aspects in the Differential Diagnosis and Therapy of Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis

1Department of Urology, University Hospital Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
2Department of Pathology, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
3Department of Gynecology and Reproduction, University Hospital Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany

Received 28 January 2011; Revised 8 April 2011; Accepted 13 July 2011

Academic Editor: John P. F. A. Heesakkers

Copyright © 2011 Jochen Neuhaus et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is presently based on mainly clinical symptoms. BPS/IC can be considered as a worst-case scenario of bladder overactivity of unknown origin, including bladder pain. Usually, patients are partially or completely resistant to anticholinergic therapy, and therapeutical options are especially restricted in case of BPS/IC. Therefore, early detection of patients prone to develop BPS/IC symptoms is essential for successful therapy. We propose extended diagnostics including molecular markers. Differential diagnosis should be based on three diagnostical “columns”: (i) clinical diagnostics, (ii) histopathology, and (iii) molecular diagnostics. Analysis of molecular alterations of receptor expression in detrusor smooth muscle cells and urothelial integrity is necessary to develop patient-tailored therapeutical concepts. Although more research is needed to elucidate the pathomechanisms involved, extended BPS/IC diagnostics could already be integrated into routine patient care, allowing evidence-based pharmacotherapy of patients with idiopathic bladder overactivity and BPS/IC.