Table 3: Association between smegma and penile cancer.

Study [ref.] 𝑛 / 𝑁 OR (95% CI)Type

Maden et al. (1993) [3]80/2682.1 (1.2–3.8)IPC+CIS
Brinton et al. (1991) [99]30/9711 (3.68–32.6)IPC
Daling et al. (2005) [36]32/3081.4 (0.3–6.9)CIS
Daling et al. (2005) [36]38/3142.4 (0.7–8)IPC

Meta-analysis (random effects): OR = 3.04 (95% CI = 1.29–7.16)

*Total cases/total participants; Adjusted odds ratio presented in original study.
IPC, invasive penile carcinoma; CIS, carcinoma in situ.