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Advances in Urology
Volume 2012, Article ID 175843, 6 pages
Research Article

New Pathophysiological Aspects of Growth and Prevention of Kidney Stones

Laboratories Viollier, Departement of Stone Research, Gartenstrasse 9, 2502 Biel, Switzerland

Received 15 February 2012; Revised 21 March 2012; Accepted 21 March 2012

Academic Editor: M. Hammad Ather

Copyright © 2012 J. M. Baumann and B. Affolter. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Kidney stones probably grow during crystalluria by crystal sedimentation and aggregation (AGN) on stone surfaces. This process has to occur within urinary transit time (UT) through the kidney before crystals are washed out by diuresis. To get more information, we studied by spectrophotometry the formation and AGN of Ca oxalate (Ca Ox) crystals which were directly produced in urine of 30 stone patients and 30 controls by an oxalate (Ox) titration. Some tests were also performed after removing urinary macromolecules (UMs) by ultrafiltration. To induce rapid crystallization, high Ox additions (0.5–0.8 mM) were necessary. The most important finding was retardation of crystal AGN by UM. In urine of 63% of controls but only 33% of patients, no AGN was observed during an observation of 60 minutes (). Also growth and sedimentation rate of crystals were significantly reduced by UM. For stone metaphylaxis, especially for posttreatment residuals, avoiding dietary Ox excesses to prevent crystal formation in the kidney and increasing diuresis to wash out crystals before they aggregate are recommended.