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Advances in Urology
Volume 2012, Article ID 384520, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/384520
Review Article

Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Asahikawa Medical University, Midorigaokahigashi 2-1-1-1, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510, Japan
2Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
3Department of Integrated Cancer Therapy and Urology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Takaramachi 13-1, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641, Japan

Received 6 August 2011; Accepted 20 August 2011

Academic Editor: Miroslav L. Djordjevic

Copyright © 2012 Toshinobu Miyamoto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.