Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Urology
Volume 2012, Article ID 397412, 5 pages
Review Article

Pathogenic and Diagnostic Potential of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 Nuclear Proteins in Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of Human Bladder

1Department of Medical Oncology, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, 60126 Ancona, Italy
2Division of Urology, Department of Clinical and Specialist Sciences, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, 60126 Ancona, Italy
3Section of Experimental Medicine, School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri, 62032 Camerino, Italy

Received 3 March 2012; Revised 13 May 2012; Accepted 1 June 2012

Academic Editor: Martin Schostak

Copyright © 2012 Matteo Santoni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is one of the most common malignancies of genitourinary tract. Patients with bladder cancer need a life-long surveillance, directly due to the relatively high recurrence rate of this tumor. The use of cystoscopy represents the gold standard for the followup of previously treated patients. Nevertheless, several factors, including cost and invasiveness, render cystoscopy not ideal for routine controls. Advances in the identification of specific alterations in the nuclear structure of bladder cancer cells have opened novel diagnostic landscapes. The members of nuclear matrix protein family BLCA-1 and BLCA-4, are currently under evaluation as bladder cancer urinary markers. They are involved in tumour cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. In this paper, we illustrate the role of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 in bladder carcinogenesis and their potential exploitation as biomarkers in this cancer.