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Advances in Urology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 819202, 5 pages
Review Article

Glyoxal Formation and Its Role in Endogenous Oxalate Synthesis

Department of Urology, Wake Forest University Medical Center, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA

Received 16 August 2011; Accepted 7 February 2012

Academic Editor: Robert E. Brannigan

Copyright © 2012 Jessica N. Lange et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Calcium oxalate kidney stones are a common condition affecting many people in the United States. The concentration of oxalate in urine is a major risk factor for stone formation. There is evidence that glyoxal metabolism may be an important contributor to urinary oxalate excretion. Endogenous sources of glyoxal include the catabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Here, we review all the known sources of glyoxal as well as its relationship to oxalate synthesis and crystal formation.