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Advances in Urology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 263602, 5 pages
Clinical Study

A Comparison of Calcium Hydroxyapatite and Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid for the Endoscopic Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux

1Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, S-287, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
2Lucille Packard Children’s Hospital, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

Received 1 July 2013; Revised 9 September 2013; Accepted 10 September 2013

Academic Editor: Hiep T. Nguyen

Copyright © 2013 Tin C. Ngo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. Minimal data exists comparing dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) and calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) for the endoscopic treatment of VUR in the hands of a single user. Materials and Methods. We reviewed our consecutive single-user case series of 27 children (42 ureters) receiving endoscopic treatment with CaHA and 21 children (33 ureters) who received Dx/HA injection. Children receiving CaHA injections were divided into two groups of 13 and 14 patients (Coaptite I and II) to assess the learning curve effects. Postoperatively, RBUS and VCUG were performed. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess statistical significance of success rates. Results. The total CaHA group had a per-ureter success rate (Grade 0) of 52% after one injection. When separated into two cohorts, the single injection per-ureter success rates were 43% for Coaptite I and 62% for Coaptite II. In contrast, the Dx/HA series had a single injection per-ureter success rate (Grade 0) of 78%. Conclusions. Our consecutive case experience shows improved results for Dx/HA compared to CaHA, though the learning curve effects and evolution of injection technique likely played a role in the improved outcomes in the Dx/HA cohort. A randomized controlled multicenter trial would provide the most accurate data comparing these two agents.