Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Urology
Volume 2014, Article ID 414125, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/414125
Review Article

Haematuria: An Imaging Guide

Department of Radiology, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland

Received 22 April 2014; Revised 24 June 2014; Accepted 25 June 2014; Published 17 July 2014

Academic Editor: M. Hammad Ather

Copyright © 2014 Fiachra Moloney et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. “European Association of Urology guidelines,” in Proceedings of the 25th EAU Annual Congress, Barcelona, Spain, 2010.
  2. R. Davis, J. S. Jones, D. A. Barocas et al., “Diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up of asymptomatic microhematuria (AMH) in adults: AUA guideline,” Journal of Urology, vol. 188, no. 6, pp. 2473–2481, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Patel and U. Patel, “Role of radiological imaging for the evaluation of hematuria,” Trends in Urology & Men's Health, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 15–19, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. O. J. O'Connor, E. Fitzgerald, and M. M. Maher, “Imaging of hematuria,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 195, no. 4, pp. W263–W267, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. O. J. O'Connor, S. E. McSweeney, and M. M. Maher, “Imaging of Hematuria,” Radiologic Clinics of North America, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 113–132, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. European Network of Cancer Registries Website, “ENCR downloads: Eurocim version 4.0 and European incidence database V2.3, 730, entitydictionary,” http://www.encr.com.fr/.
  7. O. M. Jensen, J. Esteve, H. Moller, and H. Renard, “Cancer in the European community and its member states,” European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 11-12, pp. 1167–1256, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. A. Cohen and R. S. Brown, “Clinical practice. Microscopic hematuria,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 23, pp. 2330–2338, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  9. S. Woolhandler, R. J. Pels, D. H. Bor, D. U. Himmelstein, and R. S. Lawrence, “Dipstick urinalysis screening of asymptomatic adults for urinary tract disorders. I. Hematuria and proteinuria,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 262, no. 9, pp. 1214–1219, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Mazhari and P. L. Kimmel, “Hematuria: an algorithmic approach to finding the cause,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 870–876, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. “Radiologic evaluation of hematuria: guidelines from the American College of Radiology’s appropriateness criteria,” The American family physician, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 347–352, 2008.
  12. T. Wollin, B. Laroche, and K. Psooy, “Canadian guidelines for the management of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in adults,” Journal of the Canadian Urological Association, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 77–80, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. J. Yun, M. V. Meng, and P. R. Carroll, “Evaluation of the patient with hematuria,” Medical Clinics of North America, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 329–343, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Richenberg, “Haematuria,” Imaging, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 57–72, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Anderson, D. Fawcett, J. Feehally et al., “Joint Consensus Statement on the Initial Assessment of Haematuria,” 2008, http://www.renal.org/docs/default-source/guidelines-resources/joint-guidelines/Haematuria_-_RA-BAUS_consensus_guideline_2008.pdf?sfvrsn=2.
  16. Y. Avidor, A. Nadu, and H. Matzkin, “Clinical significance of gross hematuria and its evaluation in patients receiving anticoagulant and aspirin treatment,” Urology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 22–24, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. G. van Savage, F. A. Fried, and E. Messing, “Anticoagulant associated hematuria: a prospective study,” Journal of Urology, vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 1594–1596, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. M. Mcdonald, D. Swagerty, and L. Wetzel, “Assessment of microscopic hematuria in adults,” The American Family Physician, vol. 73, no. 10, pp. 1748–1754, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Alishahi, D. Byrne, C. M. Goodman, and K. Baxby, “Haematuria investigation based on a standard protocol: emphasis on the diagnosis of urological malignancy,” Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 422–427, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. O. J. O'Connor and M. M. Maher, “CT urography,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 195, no. 5, pp. W320–W324, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. C. Nolte-Ernsting and N. Cowan, “Understanding multislice CT urography techniques: many roads lead to Rome,” European Radiology, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2670–2686, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. J. Wang, Y. C. Wong, C. C. Huang, C. Wu, S. Hung, and H. Chen, “Multidetector computerized tomography urography is more accurate than excretory urography for diagnosing transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract in adults with hematuria,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 183, no. 1, pp. 48–55, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. C. Cowan, B. W. Turney, N. J. Taylor, C. L. McCarthy, and J. P. Crew, “Multidetector computed tomography urography for diagnosing upper urinary tract urothelial tumour,” BJU International, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 1363–1370, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. O. J. O’Connor, P. McLaughlin, and M. M. Maher, “MR urograph,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 195, no. 3), pp. W201–W206, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  25. M. Masarani and M. Dinneen, “Ureteric colic: new trends in diagnosis and treatment,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 83, no. 981, pp. 469–472, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Mutgi, J. W. Williams, and M. Nettleman, “Renal colic: utility of the plain abdominal roentgenogram,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 151, no. 8, pp. 1589–1592, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Worster, I. Preyra, B. Weaver, and T. Haines, “The accuracy of noncontrast helical computed tomography versus intravenous pyelography in the diagnosis of suspected acute urolithiasis: a meta-analysis,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 280–286, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Y. M. Chen and R. J. Zagoria, “Can noncontrast helical computed tomography replace intravenous urography for evaluation of patients with acute urinary tract colic?” Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 299–303, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Meagher, V. P. Sukumar, J. Collingwood et al., “Low dose computed tomography in suspected acute renal colic,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 873–876, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. Kluner, P. A. Hein, O. Gratta et al., “Does ultra-low-dose CT with a radiation dose equivalent to that of KUB suffice to detect renal and ureteral calculi?” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. A. Ahmad, M. H. Ather, and J. Rees, “Incidental diagnosis of diseases on un-enhanced helical computed tomography performed for ureteric colic,” BMC Urology, vol. 3, no. 2, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. J. Wong-You-Cheong, B. J. Wagner, and C. J. Davis Jr., “Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract: radiologic-pathologic correlation,” Radiographics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 123–142, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. G. Zagoria, Genitourinary Radiology: The Requisites, Elsevier, Mosby, 2nd edition, 2004.
  34. E. D. Osborne, C. G. Sutherland, and A. J. Scholl, “Roentgenography of the urinary tract during excretion of sodium iodide,” JAMA, vol. 80, pp. 368–373, 1923. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. L. Dalla Palma, “What is left of i.v. urography?” European Radiology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 931–939, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. L. Gray Sears, J. F. Ward, S. T. Sears, M. F. Puckett, C. J. Kane, and C. L. Amling, “Prospective comparison of computerized tomography and excretory urography in the initial evaluation of asymptomatic microhematuria,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 168, no. 6, pp. 2457–2460, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. N. Eikefjord, F. Thorsen, and J. Rørvik, “Comparison of effective radiation doses in patients undergoing unenhanced MDCT and excretory urography for acute flank pain,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 188, no. 4, pp. 934–939, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. D. Nawfel, P. F. Judy, A. R. Schleipman, and S. G. Silverman, “Patient radiation dose at CT urography and conventional urography,” Radiology, vol. 232, no. 1, pp. 126–132, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. H. Dikranian, D. B. Petitti, C. E. Shapiro, and A. F. Kosco, “Intravenous urography in evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria,” Journal of Endourology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 595–597, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. M. Warshauer, S. M. McCarthy, L. Street et al., “Detection of renal masses: sensitivities and specificities of excretory urography/linear tomography, US, and CT,” Radiology, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 363–365, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. A. Joffe, S. Servaes, S. Okon, and M. Horowitz, “Multi-detector row CT urography in the evaluation of hematuria,” Radiographics, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1441–1455, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. B. Dyer, M. Y. M. Chen, and R. J. Zagoria, “Intravenous urography: technique and interpretation,” RadioGraphics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 799–824, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. Tack, S. Sourtzis, I. Delpierre, V. De Maertelaer, and P. A. Gevenois, “Low-dose unenhanced multidetector CT of patients with suspected renal colic,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 305–311, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. C. Smith, M. Verga, N. Dalrymple, S. McCarthy, and A. T. Rosenfield, “Acute ureteral obstruction: value of secondary signs on helical unenhanced CT,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 167, no. 5, pp. 1109–1113, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. N. Datta, G. M. Allen, R. Evans, K. C. Vaughton, and M. G. Lucas, “Urinary tract ultrasonography in the evaluation of haematuria—a report of over 1000 cases,” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 203–205, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. A. Amendola, R. L. Bree, H. M. Pollack et al., “Small renal cell carcinomas: resolving a diagnostic dilemma,” Radiology, vol. 166, no. 3, pp. 637–641, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. A. Jamis-Dow, P. L. Choyke, S. B. Jennings, W. M. Linehan, K. N. Thakore, and M. M. Walther, “Small (<or = 3-cm) renal masses: detection with CT versus US and pathologic correlation,” Radiology, vol. 198, no. 3, pp. 785–788, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. H. H. Han, K. H. Choi, Y. T. Oh, S. C. Yang, and W. K. Han, “Differential diagnosis of complex renal cysts based on lesion size along with the bosniak renal cyst classification,” Yonsei Medical Journal, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 729–733, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. M. Einstein, B. R. Herts, R. Weaver et al., “Evaluation of renal masses detected by excretory urography: cost-effectiveness of sonography versus CT,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 371–375, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  50. Y. Liang, Y. Dai, Z. Huang, K. Zheng, and H. Mei, “Clinical analysis of 123 cases of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of upper urinary tract,” Chinese Journal of Cancer, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 91–94, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. J. Edwards, A. J. Dickinson, S. Natale, J. Gosling, and J. S. McGrath, “A prospective analysis of the diagnostic yield resulting from the attendance of 4020 patients at a protocol-driven haematuria clinic,” BJU International, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 301–305, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. J. Van Der Molen, N. C. Cowan, U. G. Mueller-Lisse, C. C. A. Nolte-Ernsting, S. Takahashi, and R. H. Cohan, “CT urography: definition, indications and techniques. A guideline for clinical practice,” European Radiology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 4–17, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Ulusan, Z. Koc, and N. Tokmak, “Accuracy of sonography for detecting renal stone: comparison with CT,” Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 256–261, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. F. J. Browne, C. P. Meehan, J. Colville, R. Power, and W. C. Torreggiani, “Transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: spectrum of imaging findings,” Radiographics, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1609–1627, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. W. S. Tzeng, R. H. Wu, S. K. Huang, C. Mak, A. C. Liao, and V. C. Lin, “A comparison of pyelography and various reconstructions of multidetector helical computed tomography urography images for diagnosing urinary obstruction,” Clinical Imaging, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 773–779, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. B. R. Herts, “Imaging for renal tumors,” Current Opinion in Urology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 181–186, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. A. Kawashima, T. J. Vrtiska, A. J. LeRoy, R. P. Hartman, C. H. McCollough, and B. F. King Jr., “CT urography,” Radiographics, vol. 24, pp. S35–S54, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. M. Maher, M. K. Kalra, S. Rizzo, P. R. Mueller, and S. Saini, “Multidetector CT urography in imaging of the urinary tract in patients with hematuria,” Korean Journal of Radiology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Kawashima, J. F. Glockner, and B. F. King Jr., “CT urography and MR urography,” Radiologic Clinics of North America, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 945–961, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. L. C. Chow, S. W. Kwan, E. W. Olcott, and G. Sommer, “Split-bolus MDCT urography with synchronous nephrographic and excretory phase enhancement,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 314–322, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. G. Ascenti, A. Mileto, M. Gaeta, A. Blandino, S. Mazziotti, and E. Scribano, “Single-phase dual-energy CT urography in the evaluation of haematuria,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. e87–e94, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. Lv, Y. Zhang, J. Liu, L. Ji, Y. Chen, and J. Gao, “Material decomposition images generated from spectral CT: detectability of urinary calculi and influencing factors,” Academic Radiology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 79–85, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. M. Korobkin, “CT urography,” European Radiology, vol. 15, supplement 4, pp. D82–D84, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. Sanyal, A. Deshmukh, V. Singh Sheorain, and K. Taori, “CT urography: a comparison of strategies for upper urinary tract opacification,” European Radiology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1262–1266, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. “Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results,” European Radiology, vol. 24, pp. 709–714, 2014.
  66. A. Graser, C. R. Becker, M. Staehler et al., “Single-phase dual-energy CT allows for characterization of renal masses as benign or malignant,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 399–405, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. G. Silverman, J. R. Leyendecker, and E. S. Amis Jr., “What is the current role of CT urography and MR urography in the evaluation of the urinary tract?” Radiology, vol. 250, no. 2, pp. 309–323, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. C. Walter, M. Kruessell, A. Gindele, H. G. Brochhagen, A. Gossmann, and P. Landwehr, “Imaging of renal lesions: evaluation of fast MRI and helical CT,” The British Journal of Radiology, vol. 76, no. 910, pp. 696–703, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. J. Semins, Z. Feng, B. Trock, M. Bohlman, W. Hosek, and B. R. Matlaga, “Evaluation of acute renal colic: a comparison of non-contrast CT versus 3-T non-contrast HASTE MR urography,” Urological Research, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 43–46, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. R. Leyendecker, C. E. Barnes, and R. J. Zagoria, “MR urography: techniques and clinical applications,” Radiographics, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 23–46, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. D. Niederhauser, A. Kawashima, B. F. King, and N. Takahashi, “Utility of gadolinium-enhanced MR urography in detection of bladder carcinoma,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 472–477, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. A. Spencer, R. Chahal, A. Kelly, K. Taylor, I. Eardley, and S. N. Lloyd, “Evaluation of painful hydronephrosis in pregnancy: magnetic resonance urographic patterns in physiological dilatation versus calculous obstruction,” Journal of Urology, vol. 171, no. 1, pp. 256–260, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. E. S. Pretorius, M. L. Wickstrom, and E. S. Siegelman, “MR imaging of renal neoplasms,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 813–836, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus