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Advances in Urology
Volume 2014, Article ID 765756, 4 pages
Research Article

Lock-Out Valve to Decrease Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

1Department of Anesthesiology, University of Southern California Medical Center, 1200 N. State Street, IPT, Room C4E100, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
2The Urology Group, 19415 Deerfield Avenue, Suite 112, Leesburg, VA 20176, USA
3San Diego, CA 92121, USA
4Center for Reconstructive Urology, 333 City Boulevard West, Suite 1240, Orange, CA 92868, USA

Received 29 June 2013; Accepted 7 November 2013; Published 20 January 2014

Academic Editor: Walid A. Farhat

Copyright © 2014 Amir Shbeeb et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Patients with long-term indwelling urinary catheters are at an increased risk for urinary tract infection due to bacteriuria. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in long-term care facilities as well as in ambulatory patients requiring long-term catheterization. There is increased interest in the financial impact of CAUTI as Medicare no longer provides reimbursement for nosocomial CAUTIs. Ascending bacteria may in part enter the closed drainage system when the patient switches between leg and night collection bags. In an attempt to reduce this ascent, a double valve lock-out system was devised that maintains a closed system during bag exchange. The concept is introduced and CAUTIs are reviewed.