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Advances in Urology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 924269, 9 pages
Research Article

Surgical Approaches to Supradiaphragmatic Segment of IVC and Right Atrium through Abdominal Cavity during Intravenous Tumor Thrombus Removal

1Department of Urology, Nephrology and Andrology, Kharkiv National Medical University, 195 Moskovskiy Avenue, Kharkiv 61037, Ukraine
2Department of General, Pediatric and Oncological Urology, Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, 195 Moskovskiy Avenue, Kharkiv 61037, Ukraine

Received 27 June 2013; Accepted 5 November 2013; Published 22 January 2014

Academic Editor: James A. Brown

Copyright © 2014 Dmytro Shchukin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate safety and feasibility of some surgical approaches to the supradiaphragmatic inferior vena cava (IVC) and the right atrium through the diaphragm from the abdominal cavity. Materials and Methods. The material of the anatomical study included 35 fresh cadavers. Several options of surgical access to the supradiaphragmatic IVC were successively performed. Feasibility and risk level of each of the approaches were evaluated with the use of a special scale. Results. The isolation of the supradiaphragmatic IVC and cavoatrial junction was most easily performed via T-shaped or circular diaphragmotomy (grade “easy” was registered in 74.3% and 80% of patients, resp., compared to 31.4% for transverse diaphragmotomy and 40% for isolation of the IVC in the pericardial cavity). The risk analysis has demonstrated the highest safety level for T-shaped diaphragmotomy (grade “safe” was registered in 60% of cases). The intervention via transverse diaphragmotomy, circular diaphragmotomy, and IVC isolation in the pericardial cavity was graded as “risky” in 80%, 62.9%, and 82.9% of cases, respectively. Conclusions. In our opinion, T-shaped diaphragmotomy is the most safe and easy-to-perform access for mobilization of the supradiaphragmatic IVC through the abdominal cavity.