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Advances in Urology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 495308, 10 pages
Research Article

Measurement of the Physical Properties during Laparoscopic Surgery Performed on Pigs by Using Forceps with Pressure Sensors

1Department of Urology, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan
2Mitsubishi Precision Co., Ltd., Kamakura 247-8505, Japan
3Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan

Received 6 November 2014; Revised 2 January 2015; Accepted 16 January 2015

Academic Editor: Walid A. Farhat

Copyright © 2015 Hiroyuki Yamanaka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. Here we developed a unique training system, a patient specific virtual reality simulator, for laparoscopic renal surgery. To develop the simulator, it was important to first identify the physical properties of the organ. Methods. We recorded the force measured during laparoscopic surgery performed on pigs by using forceps with pressure sensors. Several sensors, including strain gauges, accelerometers, and a potentiometer, are attached to the forceps. Results. Throughout the experiment, we measured the reaction force in response to the forceps movement in real time. Conclusions. The experiment showed the possibility of digitizing these physical properties in humans as well.