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Advances in Urology
Volume 2018, Article ID 3718165, 6 pages
Review Article

Immune-Related Concepts in Biology and Treatment of Germ-Cell Tumors

12nd Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, National Cancer Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia
2Divison of Hematologya and Oncology, Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA
3Medical Oncology Department, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST), IRCCS, Via Piero Maroncelli 40, 47014 Meldola, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Michal Chovanec; moc.liamg@1cenavohc.lahcim

Received 29 September 2017; Revised 22 January 2018; Accepted 4 February 2018; Published 13 March 2018

Academic Editor: Aditya Bagrodia

Copyright © 2018 Michal Chovanec et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Germ-cell tumors (GCTs) are highly curable with chemotherapy. Salvage chemotherapy or surgery can cure a proportion of patients, but the ones failing these treatments will die of their disease in the young age. Immune checkpoint pathways are emerging as powerful targetable biomarkers, and a significant preclinical and clinical research is underway to widen our knowledge and expand the treatment possibilities with immune therapy. The concept of immune modulation that was currently adopted in many solid tumors is understudied in GCTs. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge of published literature discussing the immune mechanisms and immune therapy in GCTs.