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Advances in Urology
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 8671832, 20 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8671832
Review Article

Toxicities Associated with Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Long-Term Testicular Cancer Survivors

1James P. Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA
2Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA
3Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway

Correspondence should be addressed to Chunkit Fung; ude.retsehcor.cmru@gnuf_tiknuhc

Received 29 August 2017; Accepted 6 December 2017; Published 18 February 2018

Academic Editor: Aditya Bagrodia

Copyright © 2018 Chunkit Fung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Testicular cancer has become the paradigm of adult-onset cancer survivorship, due to the young age at diagnosis and 10-year relative survival of 95%. This clinical review presents the current status of various treatment-related complications experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors (TCS) free of disease for 5 or more years after primary treatment. Cardiovascular disease and second malignant neoplasms represent the most common potentially life-threatening late effects. Other long-term adverse outcomes include neuro- and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, nephrotoxicity, hypogonadism, infertility, and avascular necrosis. Future research efforts should focus on delineation of the genetic underpinning of these long-term toxicities to understand their biologic basis and etiopathogenetic pathways, with the goal of developing targeted prevention and intervention strategies to optimize risk-based care and minimize chronic morbidities. In the interim, health care providers should advise TCS to adhere to national guidelines for the management of cardiovascular disease risk factors, as well as to adopt behaviors consistent with a healthy lifestyle, including smoking cessation, a balanced diet, and a moderate to vigorous intensity exercise program. TCS should also follow national guidelines for cancer screening as currently applied to the general population.