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Advances in Virology
Volume 2010, Article ID 407476, 5 pages
Research Article

HIV Drug Resistance-Associated Mutations in Antiretroviral Naïve HIV-1-Infected Latin American Children

1Department of Infectious Diseases, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutricion, 14000 Ciudad de México, DF, Mexico
2Westat, Rockville, MD 20850-3129, USA
3Pediatric, Adolescent and Maternal AIDS Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 4B11, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510, USA

Received 28 October 2010; Accepted 24 December 2010

Academic Editor: George K. Lewis

Copyright © 2010 Luis E. Soto-Ramirez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Our goal was to describe the presence of HIV drug resistance among HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral (ARV) naïve children and adolescents in Latin America and to examine resistance in these children in relation to drug exposure in the mother. Genotyping was performed on plasma samples obtained at baseline from HIV-1-infected participants in a prospective cohort study in Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico (NISDI Pediatric Study). Of 713 HIV-infected children enrolled, 69 were ARV naïve and eligible for the analysis. At enrollment, mean age was 7.3 years; 81.2% were infected with HIV perinatally. Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were detected in 6 (8.7%; 95% confidence interval 3.1–18.2%) ARV-naïve subjects; none of the mothers of these 6 received ARVs during their pregnancies and none of the children received ARV prophylaxis. Reverse transcriptase mutations K70R and K70E were detected in 3 and 2 subjects, respectively; protease mutation I50 V was detected in 1 subject. Three of the 6 children with DRMs initiated ARV therapy during followup, with a good response in 2. The overall rate of primary drug resistance in this pediatric HIV-infected population was low, and no subjects had more than 1 DRM. Mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most prevalent.