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Advances in Virology
Volume 2011, Article ID 910930, 8 pages
Review Article

Perspective: Emerging Challenges in the Treatment of Influenza and Parainfluenza in Transplant Patients

1NexBio Inc., 10665 Sorrento Valley Road, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
2Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York, NY 11794, USA

Received 19 February 2011; Revised 11 May 2011; Accepted 1 June 2011

Academic Editor: Trudy Morrison

Copyright © 2011 Ronald B. Moss et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Influenza, respiratory synctial virus, and parainfluenza are common respiratory infections in immunocompromised transplant recipients, causing significant morbidity and mortality in this patient population. This paper focuses on influenza and parainfluenza virus infections in transplant patients with emphasis on the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza infection. Current antiviral treatment recommendations for influenza and parainfluenza in immunocompromised patients as well as novel investigational therapeutic approaches currently being tested in the clinic are discussed. In addition to the morbidity and mortality caused by these viruses, the development of multidrug resistance leading to transmission of resistant viruses is of great public health concern. The development of effective new therapies for influenza and parainfluenza in these high-risk patients is needed with randomized placebo-controlled studies to assess their clinical utility.