Figure 1: VEGF Levels in HPS Patient Pulmonary Edema Fluid. (a) Coded PEF samples from three patients were taken on the first and second days of hospitalization and tested by ELISA. Case 1 samples () were taken at ~1 hour intervals from a patient presenting with severe HPS who died 6 hours after hospitalization. Case 2 samples () were from a patient diagnosed with severe HPS who was intubated, ECMO-treated, and survived. Case 3 samples () were from a patient with moderate HPS who was intubated and survived. Control VEGF levels are derived from 13 plasma samples from healthy individuals. Results from two independent ELISAs are presented and expressed as the mean SD. Differences between VEGF levels from the severe fatal patient were significantly different from those of severe ECMO-treated, moderate HPS or controls () as determined by 1 way ANOVA test. VEGF levels of severe ECMO-treated patients were not significantly different from moderate HPS patients (), however VEGF levels from severe ECMO-treated patients were significantly different from control (). (b) Individual PEF VEGF levels from patients are presented.