Figure 3: Entry, intracellular trafficking, and uncoating of HRVs in HeLa cells. (a) The major group virus HRV14 is internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and delivered into early endosomes from where it presumably further traffics into the perinuclear recycling compartment. Structural modification of the viral capsid catalyzed by ICAM-1 is probably coupled to RNA release and rupture of the endosomal membrane. These events lead to delivery of free RNA and empty capsids into the cytoplasm. Most likely, uncoated virus and the RNA escape from the perinuclear recycling compartment. (b) HRV2 enters via clathrin-dependent and independent pathways and dissociates from its receptors at mildly acidic pH in early endosomes. Receptors are recycled and HRV2 is transferred to ECV/late endosomes where the more acidic pH (≤5.6) induces the structural modification resulting in uncoating and RNA transfer into the cytosol. Finally, residual native virus, subviral particles, and viral RNA are transported via late endosomes to lysosomes where they are degraded. Adapted from Fuchs and Blaas [112]. Note that the pathways might differ in other cell types.