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Advances in Virology
Volume 2013, Article ID 738794, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/738794
Review Article

Viruses as Modulators of Mitochondrial Functions

1Vaccine & Infection Disease Organization-International Vaccine Center (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, 120 Veterinary Road, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7E 5E3
2Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, 120 Veterinary Road, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7E 5E3
3School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, 120 Veterinary Road, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7E 5E3

Received 26 June 2013; Accepted 30 August 2013

Academic Editor: Michael Bukrinsky

Copyright © 2013 Sanjeev K. Anand and Suresh K. Tikoo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles with diverse roles including energy production and distribution, apoptosis, eliciting host immune response, and causing diseases and aging. Mitochondria-mediated immune responses might be an evolutionary adaptation by which mitochondria might have prevented the entry of invading microorganisms thus establishing them as an integral part of the cell. This makes them a target for all the invading pathogens including viruses. Viruses either induce or inhibit various mitochondrial processes in a highly specific manner so that they can replicate and produce progeny. Some viruses encode the Bcl2 homologues to counter the proapoptotic functions of the cellular and mitochondrial proteins. Others modulate the permeability transition pore and either prevent or induce the release of the apoptotic proteins from the mitochondria. Viruses like Herpes simplex virus 1 deplete the host mitochondrial DNA and some, like human immunodeficiency virus, hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell. All these processes involve the participation of cellular proteins, mitochondrial proteins, and virus specific proteins. This review will summarize the strategies employed by viruses to utilize cellular mitochondria for successful multiplication and production of progeny virus.